HISTORY of the ROYAL HOUSE of PORTUGAL
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(House of Bragança)
Henry of Burgundy (died 1112), 2nd surviving son of Henry, 2nd Duke of Burgundy (died 1071), a member of the Royal House of France, established himself as ruler of a substantial portion of modern Portugal, with the title Count, circa 1093, and was father of Alfonso I (died 1185), who assumed the title King of Portugal ca 1139. The last King of his legitimate male line was Ferdinand I, King of Portugal (born 1345, succeeded 1367, died 1383), whose bequest of the throne to his only daughter, Beatrice, married to King John I of Castille, was resisted by Ferdinandís illegitimate half-brother, John, Grand Master of the Order of St Benedict of Aviz, who was elected King in her place 1385.
The House of Aviz, as Johnís descendants became, was extinguished in the legitimate male line with the death of Henry I, Cardinal King in 1580, when the throne was assumed by his nephew, Philip II King of Spain. The present line was founded by Alfonso I (died 1461), natural son of John (João) I (of Aviz), King of Portugal (born 1357; died 14 Aug 1433), created Duke of Bragança 30 Dec 1442, Guimarães 23 Nov 1470, & Barcelos 5 Aug 1562, etc. John IV, Duke of Braganza, etc (1604-1656) became King of Portugal and of Brazil following the heroic campaign which led to the expulsion of the Spanish 1 Dec 1640. King John VI (born 13 May 1767; died 10 Mar 1826) and his wife Infanta Carlotta Joaquína of Spain (born 25 Apr 1775; married 9 Jan 1790; died 7 Jan 1830), left two sons, the elder (1) Pedro IV King of Portugal (born 11 Oct 1798; died 24 Sep 1834) was proclaimed Emperor of Brazil 12 Oct 1822 as Pedro I, and renounced the throne of Portugal 2 May 1826 in favour of his daughter Maria II da Gloria (born 4 Apr 1819; died 15 Nov 1853) who reigned 1826-28 and 1834-53. She married 1stly (with Papal dispensation) by proxy 29 Oct 1826, her uncle Dom Miguel, Infant of Portugal (on condition he swore to uphold the Charter of 29 Apr 1826, which he did on 4 Oct 1826), but this marriage was annulled by the Cardinal Patriarch of the Indies, Archbishop of Lisbon, 1 Dec 1834; she married 2ndly (by proxy 5 Nov 1834) 26 Jan 1835 Duke August of Leuchtenberg, but following his premature death 28 Mar 1835, she married 3rdly (by proxy 1 Jan 1836) 9 Apr 1836 Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and had by him twelve children. She was succeeded by her eldest son, Pedro V (born 16 Sep 1837; died 11 Nov 1861 without issue), who succeeded under the regency of his father 15 Nov 1853, and was in turn succeeded by his next brother Luis I (born 31 Oct 1838; 19 Oct 1889), who had two sons by his wife Princess Maria Pia of Savoy, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. The eldest, Carlos I (b 28 Sep 1863; assassinated 1 Feb 1908) succeeded his father 1889, while the younger Infant Dom Alfonso, Duke of Porto, died in exile in Naples 21 Feb 1920 (without issue by his morganatic wife). The Crown Prince, Dom Luis, having been assassinated with his father, the 18 year old Infant Dom Manoel was proclaimed King 1 Feb 1908 as Manoel II (born 15 Nov 1889; died 2 Jul 1932), but was forced to leave the country during the revolution, 5 Oct 1910 (the dynasty was declared deposed and permanently exiled 15 Oct 1910), and died without issue.
King Johnís yr son, (2) Infante Miguel, Duke of Bragança (born 26 Oct 1802; died 14 Nov 1866), was King of Portugal as Miguel I from 30 Jun 1828 to 26 May 1834, but he and his descendants were deprived of their rights and expelled from the throne 19 Dec 1834. Both exile laws were repealed 17 May 1950. Miguel continued to claim the throne in exile in Austria, and following his death his claims were maintained by his son Miguel (II), Duke of Braganza (see below). On 17 Apr 1922 at Paris the representatives of King Manoel II signed an agreement with the Infanta Aldegonda (born 10 Nov 1858; died 15 Apr 1946, dau of Miguel I, King of Portugal) by which Duarte, Prince of Beira (later Duke of Braganza) would inherit the claim on the death of the childless King Manoel and unite the differing Monarchist factions.
Succession to the crown is by primogeniture, males having preference over females. The King or Queen Regnant bears the title His Very Faithful Majesty (title accorded by Pope Benedict XIV, 21 Apr 1749), King of Portugal and the Algarves, King of Ceuta, above and below the seas in Africa, Lord of Guinea, of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, of Arabia, Persia and the Indies. The immediate heir to the Throne bears the title Royal Prince (or Princess) of Portugal and Duke (or Duchess) of Braganza (title used by the claimant to the throne), and the next in line the title of Prince or Princess of Beira, with the qualification of Royal Highness; the sons and daughters of the King (or Head of the House) and immediate heir have the titles Infant or Infanta of Portugal and Highness. Other cadets the title of Senhor or Senhora and the qualification of Highness (HH) with the title Dom or Doña before their first names. All members of the Royal House in the male line have the surname Bragança.