Of ancient nobility, descended from Guillaume Beauharnais, Lord of Miramion and La Chaussée 1398 who m 20 Jan 1390 Marguerite de Bourges. His grt-grt- grt grdson, François Beauharnais, Lord of Miamion, La Chaussée, Sédenay, Outreville, La Grillière, Longuesve and Beaumont, d 1588, had a 2nd son Guillaume Beauharnais, Ecuyer (b ca 1567; d 1653), was president of the General Treasury of France of the Finance Office at Orléans, Councillor of State, (1620). He was succ in his estates by his brother François de Beauharnais (d 1651), 1st President & Lieutenant-General of the Bailiwick of Orléans 1598, Councillor of State 1616. His 4th son and eventual heir Jean, was kt of Saint Michel 1653, was grdfather of Claude de Beauharnais (b 1680; d at La Chaussée 15 Jan 1738), father of François (b at La Rochelle 8 Feb 1714; d at Saint-Germain-en-Laye 18 Jun 1800) for whom the chatelainship of La Ferté-Aurain was erected into a Marquessate by RLP 6 Jul 1764, styled Marquess of Beauharnais; and of Claude (b at Rochefort 16 Jan 1717; d at Paris 25 Dec 1784), for whom the chatelainship of Les Roches-Baritaud was erected into a County by RLP of 2 Jun 1759, styled Count of Beauharnais (this line further cr Count of the Empire May 1808, and Peer of France 4 Jun 1814, extinct in the male line 10 Jan 1819). François, Marquess of Beauharnais, had with other issue Alexandre-François, styled Viscount of Beauharnais (b at Port-Royal, Martinique 28 May 1760; guillotined at Paris 23 Jul 1794), Major-General in French Army of the Rhine, m at Noisy-le-Grand 13 Dec 1779 Marie Rose Josèphe (Joséphine) Tascher de la Pagerie (b at Trois-Ilets, Martinique 23 Jun 1763; d at Château de Malmaison 29 May 1814), cr Duchess of Navarre 9 Apr 1810 (primogeniture; the succession of 4th Duke Nicholas Maximilianovich was rejected 9 Aug 1853 since the Beauharnais had been naturalized without consent as required under the Decree of August 26, 1811, the conditions of the majorat could not be fulfilled and the petition to succeed was rejected by the Conseil d'Etat 10 Aug 1858), m 2ndly at Paris 9 (civ) 9 Mar 1796 and at the Palace of the Tuileries (relig) 30 Oct 1804 (m diss by Imp Dec 16 Dec 1809, and relig annulled Paris 10 Jan 1810) General Napoléon Bonaparte, later Emperor of the French (see BONAPARTE, Part I). Alexandre de Beauharnais had issue (1). Hortense Eugénie Cécile (b at Paris 10 Apr 1783; d at Castle of Arenenberg, Switzerland 5 Oct 1837), adopted by her step-father 4 Mar 1806 becoming French Princess (Princesse française) and Imperial Highness, cr Duchess of Saint-Leu (France 30 May 1814), m Paris 4 (civ) 6 (relig) Jan 1802 Louis Bonaparte (b at Ajaccio, Corsica 2 Sep 1778; d at Livorno 25 Jul 1846), later French Prince (Prince français) and Imperial Highness 1804, King of Holland, etc, and had with other issue Emperor Napoléon III (see BONAPARTE); Alexandre had issue: (2). Eugène Rose (b at Paris 3 Sep 1781; d at Munich 21 May 1824), cr Arch Chancellor of State in the French Empire, Prince and Serene Highness 1804, Viceroy of Italy 7 Jun 1805, adopted by the Emperor Napoléon 12 Jan 1806 as non-dynastis French Prince (Prince français) and Imperial Highness, named immediate heir to Italy should the Emperor die without leaving a second son able to succeed16 Feb 1806, and cr as such Prince of Venice 17 Dec 1807, by Treaty of 16 Feb 1810 between France & the Prince Primate of German Confederation named heir to the Sovereign Grand Duke of Frankfurt 1 Mar 1810; as Hereditary Grand Duke, until occupation of Grand Duchy by allied troops Nov 1813. By art 8 of Treaty of Paris of 11 April 1814 the Allies undertook to grant Prince Eugène an establishment outside France, confirmed in Treaty between Bavaria and Austria of 23 April 1815, to which Prussia and Russia co-signed and Great Britain consented. By a further treaty between Bavaria and the Two Sicilies, the latter paid 5 million francs to the King of Bavaria in substitution for Eugène's Neapolitan estates to be used to acquire a property in Bavaria (terms completed 9 Sep 1817). Austria acquired Prince Eugene's Lombard properties from him for 7 million francs. Eugène was cr Duke of Leuchtenberg (mpr), and Prince of Eichstätt (mpr), this last sold and the title resigned to the King of Bavaria 1855, with the qualification of Serene Highness and Prince or Princess of Leuchtenberg for his descendants and the personal title of Royal Highness (with precedence immediately after members of the Bavarian Royal Family, and ultimate succession rights to the Bavarian throne failing the male line of the ruling house) by the King of Bavaria 14 Nov 1817. In 1818 he was cr first hereditary peer (Reichsräthe) of the Kingdom of Bavaria. Prince Eugène m at Munich 14 Jan 1806 Princess Augusta of Bavaria (b at Strassburg 21 Jun 1788; d at Munich 13 May 1851), and had four daughters (who became Queen of Sweden, Princess of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Empress of Brazil and Countess of Wurttemberg) and two sons: 1. Auguste Charles Eugène Napoléon, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg (b at Milan 9 Dec 1810; d at Lisbon 28 Mar 1835), cr Prince of Portugal, Duke of Santa Cruz and a Peer of Portugal, with the qualification Royal Highness by Emperor Pedro I of Brazil, as Regent of Portugal 1 Dec 1834, m by proxy at Munich 1 Dec 1834, and at Lisbon 26 Jan 1835 Maria II da Gloria, Queen of Portugal (see PORTUGAL, Part I); 2. Maximilian Josèphe Eugène Auguste Napoléon, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg (b at Munich 2 Oct 1817; d at Saint Petersburg 1 Nov 1852), whose Bavarian Ducal title was recognized in Russia and was cr Imperial Highness 2/14 Jul 1839, m at Saint Petersburg 14 Jul 1839 (dynastically valid for Russian succession purposes) Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna of Russia (b at Pavlovsk 6/18 Aug 1819; d at Saint Petersburg 9/21 Feb 1876; m 2ndly at Saint Petersburg (non dynastic) 16 Nov 1856 Count Grigori Alexandrovich Stroganov), and had issue (each cr Imperial Highness ad personam following their birth in seven Ukases dated between 28 Mar/9 Apr 1840,17/29 Feb 1852, and Princes Romanovsky for all legitimate male line descendants born of authorized marriages, with the qualification of Imperial Highness limited to two further generations 6/18 Dec 1852, this limited to the grandchildren of Nicholas I and to those already born, by Ukase of 2/14 Jul 1886). The rank of Princes of the Blood Imperial and the style Highness confirmed for succeeding generations by Imperial Ukase 28 Nov/9 Dec 1857 (subsequently limited to Serene Highness by effects of Ukase of 2/14 Jul 1886). Imperial Ukase of 23 Mar/4 Apr 1863 subjected Beauharnais line to marriage requirements of other members of dynasty ("corresponding rank" for succession to Russian titles and privileges). The present line descends from 4th Duke Nikolai (see below), whose wife (see below) was cr Countess Beauharnais (for the issue of that marriage,  mf) by Imperial Ukase 30 Jan / 11 Feb 1879, and whose issue were granted the titles of Duke and Duchess of Leuchtenberg with the qualification of Serene Highness (mf) by Imperial Ukase 23 Nov/5 Dec 1890 but who were ineligible to succ to the other Russian titles; the Russian titles passed to the latter’s younger brothers Evguen (b at Saint Petersburg 8/20 Feb 1847; d spm there 31 Aug/13 Sep 1901), who also claimed to succ to the senior Bavarian representation; and Georgi (b at Saint Petersburg 29 Feb/12 Mar 1852; d at Paris 3/16 May 1912), m 1stly at Stuttgart 12/24 May 1879 Duchess Theresia Friederike Olga of Oldenburg (b at Saint Petersburg 30 Mar/11 Apr 1852; d there 19/31 Apr 1883) and had issue a son, Alexander, Duke of Leuchtenberg, Prince Romanovsky (who d sp 26 Sep 1942) and m 2ndly at Peterhof 28 Aug/9 Sep 1889 (m diss by div 1906) Princess Anastasia of Montenegro (b at Cettinje 23 Dec 1867/4 Jan 1868; d at Cap d’Antibes 15 Nov 1935; m 2ndly Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaievich of Russia) and had with other issue (the elder of whom given the qualification of Highness, ad personam, 14/20 Jun 1899), Sergei, Duke of Leuchtenberg and Prince Romanovsky, etc (b at Peterhof 16/28 Jul 1890; d at Rome 7 Jan 1974) when the Russian Imperial titles became extinct. The senior line bears the Russian titles of Duke and Duchess of Leuchtenberg and Count and Countess Beauharnais, the Bavarian titles of Duke (mpr) and Prince of Leuchtenberg, and the French title of Marquess of La Ferté Beauharnais.