HOUSE OF BOURBON (FRANCE, SPAIN, TWO SICILIES, PARMA, LUXEMBOURG AND BRAZIL)
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Catholic:- Descended from a family of Frankish royal servants and Bishops from the 8th century, the earliest ancestor was Robert the Strong, Count of Paris, of Orléans, and of Anjou, sometimes erroneously called Duke of France (d in combat against the Norsemen 15 Sep 866); two of his sons became Kings of France: Eudes 888 - 898, and Robert 922 - 923; Hugues Capet (so called because of his nickname, capa, or cape), grandson of Robert I, elected King of France in 987; with death of Charles IV (d 1328), throne passed to Philip VI of Valois (d 1350), whose descendant Louis XI (d 1483) founded the Order of Saint Michel 1 August 1469. Pierre of France, Lord of Courtenay, yr son of Louis VI (d 1137), was father of Peter, Emperor of Constantinople (Byzantium), whose grd-son Philip, titular Emperor d spm 1283; the junior line of Courtenay became extinct in the male line 7 May 1730. Robert of France (d 1188), 4th son of Louis VI was ancestor of the Dukes of Brittany, extinct in the male line 1488; Charles I of France (d 1285), Duke of Anjou, became King of Naples 1265; his eldest grd-son Charles "Martel" (d 1295) became King of Hungary 1281, reigning there until 1382; Charles II of Anjou, King of Naples (d 1285) had a 4th son Robert (d 1309) who succ him as King of Naples, his descendants extinct in the male line with Ladislas (d sp 1414), who succ as King of Naples 1386; the claim to throne of Naples then passed to line descended from Louis of France (d 1384), 2nd son of John II, King of France, and became extinct with the death of René of Anjou, titular King of Naples (d 1480). Robert of France (d 1076), 3rd son of Robert II, king of France (d 1031), was granted Duchy of Burgundy, his descendants became extinct in the legitimate male line in 1361 when the Duchy of Burgundy reverted to the Crown; Henry of Burgundy (d 1112), 2nd surv son of Henry, 2nd Duke of Burgundy (d 1071), became Count of Portugal ca 1093, and was father of Alfonso I (d 1185), who assumed title of King of Portugal ca 1139; this line survives in an illegitimate branch, founded by João I, king of Portugal 1385 (d 1433), whose natural son Alfonso, Duke of Braganza (1370-1461) is the ancestor of the present House of Braganza (see PORTUGAL and BRAZIL). The Duchy of Burgundy reinvested in 1363 in Philip of France (d 1404), 4th son of John II, King of France, whose grt-grdson Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy d 1477 leaving an only dau Mary (1457-1482), heiress of Burgundy and Brabant, who m 1477 Maximilian of Habsburg, Archduke of Austria (see AUSTRIA). The Lordship of Bourbon was acquired by Robert of France, Count of Clermont (1256-1317), yr son of King Louis IX (Saint Louis) (1250-1318), by his marriage to Beatrice, dau and heiress of Jean of Burgundy (d 1268) and Agnes of Dampierre. Bourbon was erected into a Duchy in favour of Louis, son of Robert, 27 Dec 1327 Henri III, King of France (1574-1589) founded Order of the Holy Spirit (Saint-Esprit) 31 Dec 1578. Through the extinction of the senior male lines of the House of France (so described from the late 13th century, first described as House of Bourbon in Treaty of Montmartre 6 Feb 1662) with the murder of last Valois King Henri III in 1589, the branch of Bourbon came to the throne of France in the person of Henri III, King of Navarre (b 13 Dec 1553; d 14 May 1610), Duke of Vendôme and of Beaumont, Count of La Marche, Albret, Foix, etc, as Henri IV, 2 Aug 1589; the remaining branches still extant descend from the two sons of his son, Louis XIII (b 27 Sep 1601 - d 14 May 1643), Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, see A: BOURBON and his brother, Philippe (b 21 Sep 1640; d 9 Jun 1701), styled Duke of Anjou until his investiture with the title of Duke of Orléans, see B: ORLÉANS below. Succession to the Crown is by male primogeniture in the descendants of Henri IV, King of France. Females are excluded from transmitting any right to the Throne (a principle first enforced on death of Jean I, 1316, and again in 1328 on the death of Charles IV). The Third Family Pact between France, Spain and the Two Sicilies of 15 Aug 1761, Art 21 states "The present Treaty must be regarded, as has also been stated in the preamble, as a Family Pact between all the branches of the August House of Bourbon". The protest by the government of Charles X dated 29 Mar 1830 against the repeal of Salic Law in Spain, was made by the French King as "Head of the Royal House of Bourbon". On the extinction of the male line of the House of Bourbon (France) the right of designation of a successor to the Crown reverts to the French people.
Succession is by male primogeniture and is limited to Roman Catholics. Titles of the House of France and Navarre: His Very Christian Majesty the King of France and Navarre; children of the King (or Head of the House) have the names and titles Enfants, fils or filles of France, Princes or Princesses of the Blood Royal (du sang royal), Monseigneur or Madame, and Royal Highness; grandchildren of the King are petit-fils or petite-fille de France. Cadet branches take the name of the title of the dynast from whom they descend (i.e. of Artois, Orléans, Valois, etc) and since 1824 the qualification of Royal Highness. These titles (but not the right of succession) are limited to dynasts who are French citizens. Arms:- Az, three fleurs-de-lys or. Supporters:- Two angels vested of a dalmatic crown of the arms of France, each holding a banner of the arms of France, all ppr. Crest:- The oriflamme of Saint Denis. War Cry:- Montjoie, Saint Denis. Mottoes:- Lilia non labrant necque nent; Ex omnibus floribus elegi mihi lilium. The shield is encircled by the collars of the Orders of Saint Michel and of the Holy Ghost. The achievement is born on a mantle az, semée of fleurs-de-lys or, doubled erm, fringed and tasseled or and surmounted by the Royal Crown of France.
Orders: Order of the Holy Ghost (1 cl, 100 limit); Order of Saint Michel (1 cl, 100 limit).
A: BOURBON and BOURBON-SPAIN
Senior Line: Descended from Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre (b 5 Sep 1638; d 1 Sep 1715), father of Louis, le Grand Dauphin (b 1 Nov 1661; d 14 Apr 1711) and divided into two lines, the senior, reigning in France, became extinct in the male line with the death of Henri V, Count of Chambord, titular King of France and Navarre (b 29 Sep 1820; d 24 Aug 1883), when primogeniture representation passed to the head of the line of Bourbon-Anjou. The Grand Dauphins yr son, Philippe of France, Duke of Anjou (b 19 Dec 1683; d 9 Jul 1746), became Philip V, King of Spain and the Indies 2 Oct 1700, and founded the House of Bourbon-Anjou. Philip V signed a reciprocal (with corresponding renunciations made by the Duke of Berry and Duke of Orléans) renunciation of his rights to the throne of France for himself and his descendants, registered in the Parliament of Paris (considered by many constitutional specialists to be contrary to the Fundamental Laws of succession to the Crown) 15 Mar 1713, and incorporated into the Treaties of Utrecht 11 Apr 1713 and 13 Jul 1713. His sons founded the Lines below.
LINE ONE: BOURBON
Descended from Charles III, King of Spain (b 20 Jan 1716; d 14 Dec 1788), third son of Philip V, who became Duke of Parma 1731-35, King of the Two Sicilies 1734-59, and succ his brother Ferdinand VI as King of Spain, 1759.Branch One: BOURBON-SPAIN Founded by Charles IV, King of Spain (b 12 Nov 1748; d 19 Jan 1819), Prince of the Asturias 1759, succ as King 1788 and abdicated 1808. His son, Ferdinand VII, King of Spain (b 14 Oct 1784; d 29 Sep 1833), was succ by his daughter Queen Isabel II see separately SPAIN. First Branch (BOURBON) On the death of Ferdinand VII senior male representation of the House of Bourbon-Anjou passed to the Infant Carlos (b 28 Mar 1788; d 10 Mar 1855), who proclaimed himself Carlos V, King of Spain. The latters son, Juan, Count of Montizon (b 15 May 1822; d 18 Nov 1887), became primogeniture representative of the House of Bourbon (France) on the death of Henri V, Count of Chambord, but this line became extinct in the male line with the death of Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime and Anjou (b 12 Oct 1849; d 29 Sep 1936). Primogeniture representation passed to Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (b 17 May 1886; d 28 Feb 1941), see SPAIN. On the death of King Alfonso XIII, primogeniture representation passed to his second, but eldest surviving son, Infante Don Jaime. A challenge to the use of the Plain of Arms of France was rejected by the French Court of Appeal 22 Nov 1989. Second Branch (SPAIN)
Descended from Francisco de Paula, Duke of Cadiz, b at Aranjuez 13 May 1822; proclaimed King-Consort of Spain 10 Oct 1846; d at Épinay 16 Apr 1902, m at Madrid 10 Oct 1846 Isabel II, Queen of Spain (b at Madrid 10 oct 1830; d at Paris 10 Apr 1904). Their only son, Alfonso XII, elected King of Spain 29 Dec 1874, b at Madrid 28 Nov 1857; d there 25 Nov 1885, was father of Alfonso XIII, proclaimed King of Spain at his birth (b 17 May 1886; d 28 Feb 1941), succ as Head of all the House of Bourbon taking the Plain Arms of France 29 Sep 1936, see under SPAIN.
Descended from Infant Francisco de Paula of Bourbon (b at Madrid 10 Mar 1794; d at Madrid 13 Aug 1865), yr son of Charles IV, King of Spain, and Princess Luisa Carlotta of the Two Sicilies (b 24 Oct 1804; m 15 Apr 1819; d 29 Jan 1844).Branch Two: BOURBON-TWO SICILIES
BOURBON-SPAIN Fourth Branch (Infant Gabriel)
Descendants of the Infant Gabriel (b 11 May 1752; d 23 Nov 1788) yr brother of grt-grt-grt grandfather, and son of Charles III, King of Spain and the Indies (b 20 Jan 1716; d 13/14 Dec 1788), whose only surv son, Pedro Carlos, Infant of Spain and Portugal (so recognized in Portugal 18 Feb 1785) (b 18 Jun 1786; d 4 Jul 1812) m 13 May 1810 María Teresa de Braganza, Infanta of Portugal (b 29 Apr 1793; d 17 Jan 1874), and had an only son (Highness, the qualification of cadets of the House of Spain before 1876).Branch Three: BOURBON-PARMA B: HOUSE OF ORLÉANS (FRANCE)