THE IMPERIAL AND
surviving prerogatives and titles of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany
©Guy Stair Sainty
©Guy Stair Sainty
First published in the Italian heraldic and genealogical review, Nobiltà, October 2002
The survival of the Grand Ducal House of
Tuscany, a branch of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen, whose members also enjoys
the titles, rank and privileges of Archduke of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary
and Bohemia, was of little interest to the citizens of Florence and the
surrounding region until relatively recently. The history of Tuscany has been
viewed through the distorted perspective imposed by four generations of
historians wedded to the view that Italian unification was of benefit to all,
and that the pre-unitarian states were merely the puppets of the great powers.
While this is not the place to displace these myths, the continuing fascination
with the Medici and their successors has encouraged a revival of the
institutions associated with the dynasty and increased interest in the
representatives of the family which ruled the Grand Duchy. Foremost among these
institutions are the Orders of Santo Stefano and of San Giuseppe. The Grand
Magistery of these two Orders of Knighthood is the dynastic prerogative of the
Head of the Grand Ducal House, presently His Imperial and Royal Highness the
Grand Duke Sigismondo, Archduke of Austria and Royal Prince of Hungary and
The rise of the Medici to hereditary power in Florence was consolidated thanks to the support of the Emperor Karl V, who, following the surrender of the city on 12 August 1530, forced the Florentines to accept that the Emperor could dictate the form of the new government. In 1531 Alessandro de’ Medici was nominated by the Emperor “Republicae Florentinae Dux,” for himself and his agnatic heirs, an appointment comparable to the position of Doge of Venice or Genoa, but was assassinated by his own cousin Lorenzo, in 1535, without leaving an immediate heir. The Florentine senate acknowledged the legality of the Imperial grant by electing a distant cousin, Cosimo I de’ Medici, and the Emperor confirmed the election in 1537. Cosimo had enjoyed a successful military career and his conquest of Siena and absorption into the territories of Florence firmly established him as the dominant military figure of the Republic.
Despite the Imperial claim of the right of confirmation of
the title of Republicae Florentinae Dux, the Florentines refused to accept that
their city was an Imperial fief; nonetheless, their recognition of the Imperial
title and its concession to the Medici marked a diminution of their claims to
complete independence. Siena and the Florentine territories in the Lunigiana,
were indisputably Imperial fiefs, even though the right of immediate investiture
of Siena had been ceded by the Emperor to Spain. The Pope, determined to
maintain his own claims to supremacy, at least in Italy, now intervened and
conferred upon Cosimo the title of Grand Duke, a wholly novel invention, in the
Bull Romanus Pontifex in excelso
militantis Ecclesiae Throno disponente, of 27 August 1569. This Bull recited
the authority by which previous Popes had conferred the title of King and Prince
on Europe’s sovereigns, and created Cosimo de Medici and his successors as
Dukes of Florence (following the same succession as the Imperial designation of
this title), “Magnos Duces, & Principes Provinciae Etruriae.”
This further elevation of the Medici was greeted with anger
by the Emperor, who had not been consulted and he made an official protest to
the Pope. The important role played by the galleys of the Order of Santo Stefano
at Lepanto, however, earned the new Grand Duke, Francesco I, the Imperial
gratitude, and the Emperor himself confirmed the Grand Ducal title in 1575. Thus
were the Republics of Florence and Siena converted into the Grand Duchy of
Tuscany, a state whose precise ranking, nonetheless, remained contested. The
Grand Duke, who assumed the title of Royal Highness (a style that remained in
contention with some other sovereigns), claimed for his Ambassadors precedence
immediately after the Ambassadors of Kings, but when the Envoy of the Grand
Master of the Order of Saint John disputed this in 1653, claiming precedence at
the Court of Madrid before the Envoy of the Grand Duke, the Grand Master’s
claim was accepted. France, for example, continued to receive a permanent
Ambassador Extraordinary from the Religion de Malta and the Republic of Venice,
while accepting only an Envoy Extraordinary from the Grand Duke.
Cosimo’s most long-lasting achievement was his
foundation, with Papal support, of the “Sacred
Military Order of Santo Stefano” on 15 March 1561, to commemorate his victory
over the French, led by Marshal Strozzi, at the battle of Marciano, on Santo
Stefano's day, 2 August 1554. Duke Cosimo was authorized to proceed with the
organization of the Order by a Brief of Pope Pius IV (Eximiae devotionis) of 1 October 1561,
and hold the Grand Magistery for him and "postreorum tuorum decus, et
honorem"; this was confirmed in the Bull His, quae pro Religionis propagatione of 1 February 1562, putting it
under the Rule of Saint Benedict.
The privileges of the knights and prerogatives of the Grand Master were further
detailed in the Bull Altitudo divinae
providentiae of 5 June 1562. Limited to Catholics of legitimate birth, the
knights were obliged to defend the shipping of Christian nations against
pirates, liberate Christians from the slavery of the Turks and, above all,
defend the Church and the Catholic Faith. Its statutes were confirmed by Pope
Pius V in a further Bull of the following year, in which Cosimo and his
successors were declared Grand Masters of the Order in perpetuity, and the seat
of the Order established at Pisa, where Cosimo established two Conventual Houses
for the knights. Thus the Order was a Religious foundation of the Holy Roman
Church, independent of secular jurisdiction and incapable of abolition by a
secular authority without the consent and authorization of the Holy See. The
Order of Santo Stefano provided an important focus for the nobility of the Grand
Duchy and helped insure the loyalty of families who had hitherto been pillars of
the Republic towards their new Monarchy.
The decline of the Medici dynasty began with the death of
the first Grand Duke. While the Medici continued to distinguish themselves as
collectors and patrons of the arts (although Florence was replaced by Rome,
Bologna and Naples as centers of Italian art in the 17th century),
their physical and moral decline was matched by the diminishing influence of
Tuscany in Italian affairs. The penultimate Grand Duke Cosimo III’s younger
brother was the Cardinal Francesco Maria de’ Medici,
an important figure who held the difficult but profitable position of
“Protector of Austria and Spain”, presenting him with an irreconcilable
conflict on the death of Carlos II of Spain in 1700. Cosimo decided to recognize
the succession of Felipe V, thus placing him in the French, and therefore
anti-Austrian camp, but although Cosimo obtained the investiture of Siena and
Portoferraio as fiefs of the Spanish Crown, he nonetheless failed to persuade
Felipe V to recognize the title of “Royal Highness” for his eldest son and
heir, Prince Ferdinando. The Hereditary Grand Prince, described as “a martyr
to Venus and disciple of the Graces” was distinguished for having excelled
even his immediate antecedents in decadence and incompetence. The latter’s
death in 1713 without leaving an heir by his unfortunate wife, Princess Violante
of Bavaria, left in his stead only Cosimo’s younger son, Gian Gastone, as
eventual male heir to Tuscany.
Gian Gastone was a debauchee of considerable experience,
generally uninterested in statecraft until its responsibilities were forced upon
him, but pretending to some expertise in antiquarian studies and botany. He had
been married off to Princess Anna Maria Francesca of Saxe-Lauenburg, already a
widow (of another Bavarian Prince, Count Palatine Felipe of Neuberg) by whom she
had had a daughter. Cosimo had been reassured by her evident fertility, but had
ignored her lack of physical charms – she was the same age as Gian Gastone,
and like him a colossus of bosom and belly. She also proved unwilling to leave
her Bohemian estates and made it clear that she hated cities, courts and society
and much preferred the solid charms of her horses and farm animals. One can but
sympathize with the unfortunate Gian Gastone, who described his wife “apart
from her ill-humor … a German woman, which signifies more than a woman. I have
used such finesses and blandishments to propitiate her as nobody else in my
position would tolerate. I demand nothing from her, though my claims are
ratified by the pacts that were signed at my marriage. I suffer her to call me a
thief in public with inimitable patience…”
The marriage, unsurprisingly, was a disaster and childless.
Without a male heir the Medici dynasty was doomed to
extinction. As both his sons were childless Cosimo III had been faced with the
threat of the Emperor seizing the Grand Duchy, on the pretext that it was an
Imperial fief without an heir. Cosimo’s council had persuaded him that as it
had been the people of Florence who had first chosen the Medici to lead them, he
should bequeath sovereignty back to his subjects, the citizens of Florence.
Unfortunately this solution, while certainly to the advantage of the Grand
Duke’s councilors whose powers would have been enlarged thereby, would have
lost Siena and the other imperial fiefs that had been gradually aggregated to
the original Florentine territories. Cosimo was persuaded that to restore the
Republic and lose the Imperial fiefs, would weaken the much reduced state to the
disadvantage of the Florentines. The Grand Duke then modified this
quasi-democratic impulse and decided that on the death of the survivor of
himself or his sons, his daughter Anna Maria, Electress Palatine, would succeed
and that only upon her death Tuscany would revert to the citizens of Florence.
It was hoped that some accommodation could have been made with the Emperor,
which would have permitted the Imperial fiefs to remain attached to Florence. At
no time was it suggested that any rights to the succession might pass to the
junior surviving branch of the Medici family, which had settled in the Kingdom
of Naples and whose closest connection to the reigning line went back to the 13th
century, long before the Medici had established themselves as a reigning house.
The Archduke Karl, the Habsburg rival of Felipe V for the
Spanish Crown, had succeeded his brother as Emperor Karl VI in 1711. Imperial
troops had already established Austrian rule in the former Spanish possessions
in Italy and the Netherlands and Karl hoped to include Tuscany with his other
Italian territories, giving him control of much of the peninsular.
Since Anna Maria was childless the Emperor agreed to her eventual
succession, but only provided he or his heirs should inherit the entire Grand
Duchy on her death. Cosimo decided to ignore the Emperor and on 26th
November 1713 issued a decree that his daughter would succeed if he and his son
predeceased her; the next day the decree was presented to the Florentine Senate
which greeted the proposal with “joyous acclamations.”
The Emperor was outraged, writing to Anna Maria’s husband on 25th
May 1714 that the Grand Duke had no right to make such a provision, and claiming
the entire Grand Duchy, aside from the small parts that remained fiefs of the
Pope, as an Imperial fief.
Cosimo’s decision to admit the right of his daughter to
the succession opened up the claims of other female line heiresses. If Maria
Anna could inherit the Grand Duchy, as a Medici princess, surely others could do
so should she die without heirs. The betrothal, and then marriage, of Felipe V
of Spain to Elisabetta Farnese, eventual heiress of Parma, angered the Emperor
even more. Spain and the Empire were still at war, although peace had been
signed between Karl and France at Rastadt (Baden); France had consented to the
Imperial demands that Felipe V should lose all his Italian possessions, but
Spain had not. This marriage not only promised to give the Spanish King a
foothold in the Farnese duchies of Parma and Piacenza, but as Elisabetta was the
great-granddaughter of Margherita de’ Medici, sister of Ferdinando II, and the
Farnese male line would become extinct in 1731, it would allow Felipe V to claim
Tuscany as well as Parma for the first born son of this marriage.
The alliances that had combined to defeat France in the War
of the Spanish Succession had begun to fracture; Great Britain was troubled by
the increasing power of the Emperor and with her substantial trading interests
in Italy, notably Livorno, did not want Tuscany to lose its independence. The
Emperor himself was confronted with the problem of his own succession; he was
the father only of two daughters and the last twenty-five years of his reign
were to be dedicated to insuring the succession of the elder, Maria Teresa, to
the Habsburg hereditary estates. Brandenburg-Prussia and Bavaria, on the other
hand, saw the Imperial succession problem as an opportunity to enlarge their own
power. The Emperor, understanding Cosimo’s venality now offered to enlarge the
Grand Duchy if he would take steps to exclude the Infante don Carlos and instead
name as successor someone independent of Spain and Austria. Cosimo demanded
Piombino and the Presidii
but this demand seemed excessive to the Emperor. After some delay, Cosimo agreed
to nominate the Duke of Modena as heir, but the Emperor still refused to grant
him Piombino and the Presidii and then announced that neither would he agree to
Tuscany’s union with Modena.
Events now passed from the Emperor’s control; his old
allies, Britain and the Netherlands had joined up with France in the Triple
Alliance, to which Austria was forced to accede in the Treaty of London to buy
French support in his struggle to assure the succession of his daughter. The
Powers now agreed that Elisabetta Farnese’s eldest son, the Infante don
Carlos, should succeed to Parma, without however consulting the Pope, who
claimed to be its feudal superior and enjoy the right of investiture (a right
also claimed by the Emperor), while determining that the Emperor could dispose
of Tuscany as he wished. Neither Cosimo nor Felipe V was consulted, although the
former tried to play off Austria and Spain against each other through devious
maneuverings by his Ambassadors in Madrid and Vienna. The Spanish King ignored
the dispositions by the other Powers and decided to attempt to recover his
possessions in southern Italy, landing troops in Palermo. Although the Sicilians
welcomed them, Austrian rule being extremely unpopular (even when nominally
administered through the proxy King, the Duke of Savoy),
the Spanish suffered an ignominious defeat at the hands of Admiral Byng on 11th
The Quadruple Alliance immediately imposed a new
settlement; Sicily would be given to the Emperor, reuniting it with Naples, and
Spain would lose Sardinia to the Duke of Savoy in return for the Infante don
Carlos de Borbón y Farnese being confirmed as heir to Tuscany and Parma. The
Emperor in turn would renounce his claim to Spain and the Indies while Felipe
would confirm the renunciation of his French rights included in the Treaties of
Utrecht. Although he delayed consenting, Felipe V eventually acceded to the
Quadruple Alliance at the Treaty of London 26th January 1720, which,
nonetheless, referred the various issues remaining in dispute to the Congress of
Cambrai. Much relieved at a settlement which would at least insure that his
beloved Tuscany would retain its independence, even without the additions of
Piombino and the Presidii, Cosimo III now added San Giuseppe to San Giovanni
Battista and San Zenobio as the heavenly protectors of the Grand Duchy, a
decision ratified by the Senate in December 1719.
Although the succession seemed settled, the Emperor
continued to claim the Grand Duchy as an imperial fief, while the Florentines
asserted their independence; rival academic treatises were issued fiercely
arguing each case. The Powers paid little attention, realpolitik being a stronger motive for settlement than the
arguments of scholars, except when these arguments could be used to support one
or other opposing political view. Meanwhile the eventual claim of the dowager
Electress Maria Anna was being ignored by all and, when Cosimo III died on 31st
October 1723, the security of the succession first of Maria Anna and then the
Infante was still not assured. The
new Grand Duke Gian Gastone, to the surprise of many, exhibited occasional
astuteness as ruler, even though he spent most of his time in bed, too lazy to
make the most elementary decisions. The Grand Duke attempted some modest social
reforms, abolishing some of the more onerous taxes and founded a workhouse for
the homeless and many beggars who plagued the city. As a statesman the new Grand
Duke was less successful, trying to play Austria against Spain, wishing to
resist the imposition of a Spanish garrison (whose cost would inevitably be born
by the Tuscan exchequer) but not submit to Austrian suzerainship. Gian Gastone
did not anticipate the short-lived rapprochement between the two rival powers
which led to the Treaty of Vienna of 1725, allowing for Imperial Investiture of
the Grand Duchy in the person of Infante Don Carlos and thus seemingly deciding
the status of Tuscany as an Imperial fief.
The Emperor, meanwhile, doubting the merits of the Spanish
rapprochement, continued to insist on his right to control the succession and
arranged a marriage for Elisabetta Farnese’s uncle, Antonio, last reigning
Duke of Parma of the Farnese dynasty; any issue of that marriage would have had
a superior claim to both Parma and Tuscany to that of the Spanish Queen. Like
the marriage of the unfortunate Cardinal Francesco Maria de’ Medici, this
attempt to produce an heir failed and Antonio expired in January 1731, leaving
his widow feigning a pregnancy that, finally, in September was announced as
having been founded in her imagination.
Upon Antonio’s death Karl VI promptly sent Imperial
troops into the duchy, to supposedly secure it for the Infante Don Carlos; the
Spanish were naturally skeptical of Austria’s intentions and with the arrival
of Spanish forces in October the Austrians withdrew. Gian Gastone and the
Spanish Ambassador agreed secretly that the Infante would be proclaimed
Hereditary Grand Prince with no mention of Imperial suzerainty (nor of the
rights of his sister the Electress),
while the Grand Duke and the widowed Duchess of Parma would remain his
guardians. Don Carlos arrived at Livorno on 27th December but, to
everyone’s horror, caught smallpox soon afterwards – the scourge of his
French cousins –thankfully he recovered fully with minimal scarring. On 9th
March 1732 Don Carlos made his formal entry into Florence to the acclaim of the
citizenry and nobility, much relieved at the solution that guaranteed the
support of both Spain and France and the eventual succession of a young and
Gian Gastone, meanwhile, continued to ignore the Emperor
and, on 24th June 1732,
the new Hereditary Grand Prince received the homage of the Tuscan provinces over
repeated protests by the Emperor. The difficulty of the Parmese investiture also
remained an issue, however, as the Spanish demanded that the Emperor agree to
invest D. Carlos immediately as Duke, rather than wait until he reached his
majority. The Emperor required that if Don Carlos was to receive immediate
Imperial investiture he must forego the use of the title of Hereditary Grand
Prince of Tuscany. The Pope had to be persuaded to agree to a solution that
recognized the Imperial right of investiture of Parma.
None of these problems were settled when, on 1st
February 1733, Augustus II of Poland died, leaving open the important question
of the Polish succession. Louis XV wanted his father-in-law, the exiled
Stanislas Leczinski restored and that this would directly oppose Austria’s
wishes was sufficient to gain the support of Savoy-Sardinia and Spain. The
treaties of Turin (September 1733) and the Escorial (7th November
following) between France and Sardinia and France and Spain planned a new
division of Italy: Spain would recover Naples and Sicily in the person of
Infante Carlos, while his younger brother Felipe (Filippo) would succeed in
and Tuscany; the King of Sardinia would keep his island state but enlarge his
power with the addition of the Duchy of Milan; in exchange for which France
would gain the old Duchy of Savoy.
The alliance was fragile, however, and once the Spanish had
defeated Austria in Naples and proclaimed Don Carlos King, the King of Sardinia,
seeing Austria undefeated in Milan, wavered; the war ended in a new treaty whose
preliminaries were signed on 3rd October 1735. These were concluded
in the Treaty of Vienna of 19th November 1735
in which the Emperor recognized Don Carlos as King of Naples and Sicily, in
exchange for possession of Parma and Piacenza under an imperial governor; Don
Carlos was permitted to retain possession of the Farnese allodial fiefs and
enjoy his uninhibited governance of the Constantinian Order. This treaty also
instituted the Neapolitan “secondogeniture”
which required that if the Crowns of Spain and Naples be united in one person,
the Italian sovereignties should be transferred to the second prince in line.
Austria gained a considerable advantage in making these concessions, which had
already been established de facto by
force of arms; Don Carlos was required to surrender his rights to Tuscany, which
were transferred to Francis, Duke of Lorraine – the entire possessions of the
House of Lorraine in exchange being given to Stanislas Leczinski, with the
reversion to France upon his death (which occurred in 1766).
The dispositions by the great powers were not particularly
welcome to those whom they most affected. The Duke of Lorraine, although
promised the hand of Archduchess Maria Teresa and the eventual election as
Emperor, was reluctant to abandon the ancient capital that had been his
family’s seat for some 700 years. Gian Gastone, who had come to see the
Infante as a surrogate son, was despondent at the prospect of the hated Germans,
whom, recalling his dreadful wife, he considered uncouth and boorish, occupying
his beloved Florence. Gian Gastone was unsuccessful in continuing to dispute the
Imperial claim to investiture of the entire Grand Duchy, but managed to secure a
small but significant victory; insisting that if Francis became Emperor the
Grand Duchy should be settled on a second son and never afterward united with
the Imperial Crown. Thus was established the principle of “secondogeniture” for Austria and Tuscany that would also regulate
the successions to Austria and Modena and to Spain and the Two Sicilies.
The last days of Gian Gastone led to a reconciliation with
his unfortunate sister and, more important, with the Church; having been notably
negligent in his religious obligations to the point of being accused of
abandoning his faith altogether, the Grand Duke with great humility confessed
and received the sacraments for the first time for many years on 10th
July 1737. His sincerity moved all who witnessed it and was followed by his
investiture with the insignia of a knight, and regalia of Grand Master of the
Order of Santo Stefano, thus insuring he would benefit from the various
indulgences and privileges granted to members of the Order by the Pope. The next
day he was anointed with Holy Oil and received the Papal Nuncio (he gave him
benediction and Papal absolution), the Archbishop of Florence (who recommended
the salvation of his soul), and the Bishop of Fiesole. On 11th July
he died with his sister at his side,
surrounded by his councilors and courtiers. Immediately the Prince de
took possession of the Grand Duchy in his master’s name; the next day, 12th
July, the Senate and the Council of two hundred swore solemn fealty to their new
sovereign. The citizenry had to wait another eighteen months before greeting the
new Grand Duke Francesco, who was commanding Imperial forces in the Balkans; he
finally entered the Grand Duchy on 20th January 1739.
The succession of the new Grand Duke had already been
assured by his investiture, in anticipation, on 24th January 1737.
The original appointment of the Medici as Dukes of the Florentine Republic had
been limited to the agnatic succession; the grant of the title of Grand Duke had
to been to Cosimo I as Duke and his heirs and successors as such. The
recognition of the rights of succession of women had never been formally
accepted by the Emperor in the form of investiture, even though it had been
acknowledged by the provisions of the Treaty of Vienna of 1735. The Grand Duke
had claimed the right to name his daughter as heiress on the grounds that as
ruler of Florence, which he had insisted was not an Imperial fief, he could
dispose of the non-feudal territories as he wished, with the necessary consent
of the Florentine Senate. The new investiture was in compensation for the loss
of the nominal Imperial fief of Lorraine, and thus required that all those who
would have enjoyed a right of succession to that Duchy would also be in line of
succession to Tuscany. The Emperor took the opportunity to substitute the system
of “semi-salic” law for that of ordinary mixed succession, which, while it
had governed Lorraine for centuries, had nonetheless in practice assured the
succession to the agnatic line by arranging marriages between the daughters of
reigning Dukes lacking sons to their Lorraine cousins.
text of the investiture reads in its essential elements: “Dipoi vicendevolmente, che per indennizzare la prefata Serenissima casa
di Lorena dei Ducati per l'addietro posseduti, appartenga alla medesima dopo la
morte del presente Possessore, il Gran Ducato di Toscano. In oltre che
tutte le Potenze, che avessero avuto parte alla Pace, prendano sopra di se il
mantenimento, e la garanzia di quest’eventuale Successione in favore della
soprammentovata Casa: che le Truppe Spagnole siano ritirate dalle Piazze, e
Fortezze del Gran Ducato di Toscana…
per singolare favore del Cielo, che sempre più andava beneficando i pacifici
sentimenti di Noi, e del Re Cristianissimo, segui, che gli stati del sacro
Romano Imperio legittimamente adunati nella Dieta di Ratisbona non solamente
acconsentirono ai predetti Articoli Preliminari, ed a tutto ciò che in loro si
contiene, ma trasferirono altresì in Noi la piena, e totale facoltà di
trattare, di conchiudere, e di fare norma degli medesimi, non solo in proprio
nome, ma ancore in nome dell'Imperio tutte quelle cose, che restavano da
trattarsi, e da compirsi per por fine alla salutare opera della Pace; e
quantunque pel tenero affetto, che portava e che di presente ancora porta ai
Popoli suoi sudditi il Serenissimo Duca di Lorena e di Bar Francesco III.
Nostro carissimo Genero esitasse da principio a mandarne in proprio nome, e
degli suoi successori, …che negli poco fa citati Articoli Preliminari, e nella
convenzione dell'esecuzione sottoscritta, e firmata il di 11 del passato Aprile
poste si ritrovano, ma altresì a quelle, che dipoi furono stabilite concernenti
un'altra Epoca della Cessione del Ducato di Lorena diversa da quella, che da
principio piacque, sotto clausure, e condizioni, de quali fu insieme convenuto.
quali cose cosi essendo, non solamente la giustizia, e l'equità, ma altresì la
stessa buona fede evidentissimamente richiedono, che ne sia indennizzato non
solo il sopramemorato Serenissimo Duca di Lorena, e di Bar, e li suoi
Discendenti, ma ancora tutti quanti gli altri Eredi, e successori, ai quale
senza la sopradetta Cessione sarebbe toccato il diritto di succedere nei Ducati
fin qui posseduti dalla casa di Lorena.
la qual cosa Noi di certa nostra scienza con maturo consiglio, e colla nostra
Imperiale Potestà, ed in vigore ancora del consenso datoci dal Sacro Imperio
Romano Germanico in Nome Nostro, e dei Nostri legittimi Successori nella Corona
Imperiale Imperatori, e Re dei Romani, al sopradetto Serenissimo Duca di Lorena,
e di Bar Francesco III, Nostro Carissima Genero, ed ai suoi Discendenti Maschi,
in infinito, e questi (che Iddio non permetta) mancando, al Principe Carlo
Fratello del sopraddetto Duca, ed ai suoi Discendenti Maschi parimente, in
infinito, osservando sempre l'ordine di Primogenitura, che è sempre stato
osservato in riguardo alla successione nel Gran Ducato di Toscana, e se ancora
questi Discendenti Maschi, dei quali abbiamo in ultimo luogo parlato, verrebbero
del tutto a mancare, agli altri Principi maschi procedenti per stirpe mascolina
della Serenissima Casa di Lorena parimente secondo l'ordine di Primogenitura, e
finalmente estinta affatto la stirpe mascolina della Casa di Lorena, e non
rimanendo più alcun Principe maschio, o della linea presentemente Regnante, o
delle linee collaterali, ancora Principesse femmine nate della Serenissima Casa
di Lorena altresì secondo l'ordine di Primogenitura, che come s'è detto, si
dee in perpetuo osservare, l'eventuale diritto si succedere nel Gran Ducato di
The Imperial investiture of 1737 replaced the designation
of the Medici and their agnatic successors as Republicae Florentinae Duces, and
the effects of the Papal Bull of 1569 creating the title of Grand Duke of
Tuscany for the Medici Dukes and the subsequent Imperial Bull of 1575. While
Karl VI’s investiture of the Grand Duchy did not execute Gian Gastone’s wish
for the establishment of the “secondogeniture”
when Francis became Emperor, this was later laid out in an Imperial decree, made
with the consent of the Emperor’s eldest son, Archduke Joseph, future Emperor
Joseph II, on 14 July 1763. This act named the Emperor’s second son Archduke
(Peter) Leopold of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia,
as Grand Duke of Tuscany, on the occasion of the Archduke’s marriage to the
Infanta Doña Maria Luisa of Spain, daughter of the former Hereditary Grand
Prince of Tuscany, Carlos III.
It read “We wish that as Head of the Family and Grand Duke of Tuscany, for Us,
Our Heirs and Successors … we constitute in the said Grand Duchy of Tuscany a
‘secondogeniture’ in favor of Our
forenamed Son Archduke Leopold…”. The act continued by providing that should
the Archduke die without legitimate issue or descendants that the succession to
the Grand Duchy would return to the line of the eldest son, but that if the
eldest son, Archduke Joseph, died without male heirs, the Grand Duchy would pass
to the second in line, and failing this to the other heirs of Lorraine as
provided in the investiture of 24th January 1737.
This act emphasized once again the status of the Grand Duchy as an Imperial fief
and was followed by an act of confirmation and abdication of rights by the
Archduke Joseph, on the same day, 14th July 1763.
Leopoldo proved to be one of the more successful rulers in
the history of Tuscany, introducing important social reforms, simplifying
taxation and encouraging the expansion of trade. At the same time he was less
than supportive of the Order of Santo Stefano and its costly galleys, leading to
the resignation of the Order’s admiral, Sir John Acton (who left to join the
Neapolitan service) and the sale of the remaining fleet.
Florence, however, became one of the principal attractions for noblemen
on the Grand Tour and the marvels of the Grand Ducal collections in the Uffizi
and the Palazzo Pitti one of the wonders of the age. With Emperor Joseph II’s
death without surviving issue, in 1790, the Grand Duke Leopoldo succeeded as
Emperor Leopold II and his family sorrowfully transferred their residence from
the delights of Florence to the dour charms of Vienna. In accordance with the
requirement of the “secondogeniture”,
Leopold abdicated the succession to the Grand Duchy to his second son,
Ferdinando, with the consent of his eldest son, the future Emperor Francis I of
Austria, on 21st July 1790.
The new Grand Duke inherited the throne at a difficult
moment. The throne of his aunt, the unfortunate Queen Marie-Antoinette was in
grave danger and Europe was shortly to be plunged into a devastating war, which
would transform its systems of governments and laws forever. French troops had
occupied the Grand Duchy in 1799 and, although Ferdinando remained in power, his
position was tenuous. By the Treaty of Lunéville of 9th February
1801, between the Emperor and First Consul of the French Republic, Grand Duke
Ferdinando was dispossessed of the Grand Duchy in favor of the Duke of Parma,
whose wife was the daughter of Charles IV of Spain, a temporary ally of the
French, while the Duke of Parma in turn renounced his duchies to the French
Republic (article 1 of the Treaty of Aranjuez of 21st February 1801).
Tuscany was now converted into the Kingdom of Etruria for the Duke of Parma,
under the terms of the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1st October
1800 between Spain and France. France was untroubled by the niceties of Imperial
investiture and the Emperor himself, not wishing to accord his blessing to this
illegal usurpation of his brother’s rights, merely acknowledged “HRH the
Infant of Spain who is in possession of the grand-duchy of Tuscany" as
"King of Etruria” (Article 1 of the Convention of Paris, 26 December
The Grand Duke was offered compensation with the territories of the Archbishop
of Salzburg, which were erected into a new Electorate of the Empire on 27th
February 1803; these were exchanged with his brother the Emperor for the
territories of the former Archbishop of Wurzburg, to which the Electoral dignity
was attached, by the Treaty of Pressburg of 26th December 1805. With
the dissolution of the Empire, Archduke Ferdinando joined the Confederation of
the Rhine taking the title of Grand Duke, on 25th September 1806.
No longer in control of the Order of Santo Stefano, whose
Grand Magistery had been usurped by the King of Etruria (the French
administration purported to suppress the Order on 9th April 1809), on
9th March 1807 the Grand Duke founded a new Order, the Civil and
Military Order of Merit under the title of San Giuseppe, dedicated to the last
of the Patrons of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Modeled closely on the Two
Sicilies Order of San Ferdinando e del Merito and the French Legion d’Honneur,
this Order was divided initially into three ranks, Grand Cross, Commander, and
Knight. Its badge closely resembled that of the Legion of Honor, with six
instead of five arms of two points emanating from a central medallion,
surmounted by a Crown.
The collapse of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and the
withdrawal of French troops once again changed the course of Tuscan history. The
Grand Duke’s assumption of the Tuscan throne was effected on 30 May 1814 (he
had been proclaimed Grand Duke at Bologna on 25 April 1814), and the first
Treaty of Vienna following the Congress, of
9th June 1815 provided that, in respect of the:
« Possessions du Grand duc de
S.A.I. l'archiduc Ferdinand d'Autriche est rétabli, tant pour lui que pour ses
héritiers et successeurs, dans tous les droits de souveraineté et propriété
sur le grand-duché de Toscane et ses dépendances, ainsi que S.A.I. les a possédés
antérieurement au traité de Lunéville. Les stipulations de l'article 2 du
traité de Vienne du 3 octobre 1735, entre l'Empereur Charles VI et le Roi de
France, auxquelles accédèrent les autres puissances, sont pleinement rétablies
en faveur de S.A.I. et R. le grand-duc Ferdinand et ses héritiers et
descendants, 1. L'État des Présides; 2. La partie de l'île d'Elbe et de ses
appartenances qui était sous la suzeraineté de S.M. le roi des Deux-Siciles
avant l'année 1801; 3. La suzeraineté et souveraineté de la principauté de
Piombino et ses dépendances ;
4. Les ci-devant fiefs impériaux de Vernio, Ontanto et Monte-Santa-Maria,
enclavés dans les États Toscane.
Duché de Lucques
La principauté de Lucques sera possédée en toute souveraineté par S.M.
l'infante Marie-Louise et ses descendants en ligne directe et masculine. Cette
principauté est érigé en duché, et conservera une forme de gouvernement basée
sur les principes de celle qu'elle avait reçue en 1805. Il sera ajouté aux
revenus de la principauté de Lucques, une rente de cinq cent mille francs que
S.M. l'empereur d'Autriche et S.A.I. le grand-duc de Toscane s'engagent à payer
régulièrement, aussi long-temps que les circonstances ne permettront pas de
procurer à S.M. l'Infante Marie-Louise, et à son fils et ses descendants, un
autre établissement. Cette rente sera spécialement hypothéqué sur les
seigneuries de bohême, connues sous le nom de bavaro-palatines,
qui, dans le cas de reversion du duché de Lucques au grand-duché de Toscane,
seront affranchies de cette charge, et rentreront dans le domaine particulier de
S.M.I. et R.A.
Réversibilité du duché de Lucques
Le duché de Lucques sera réversible au grand-duc de Toscane, soit dans le cas
qu'il devint vacant par la mort de S.M. l'Infante Marie-Louise, ou de son fils
don Carlos et de leurs descendants mâles et directs, soit dans celui que
l'infante Marie-Louise ou ses héritiers directs obtinssent un autre établissement
ou succédassent à une autre branche de leur dynastie. Toutefois le cas de réversion
échéant, le grand-duc de Toscane s'engage à céder, dès qu'il entrera en
possession de la principauté de Lucques, au duc de Modène, les territoires
suivants: 1. Les districts toscans de Fivizano, Pietra-Santa et Barga; 2. Les
districts lucquois de Castiglione et Gallicano, enclavés dans les États de Modène,
ainsi que ceux de Minucciano et Monte-Ignose, contigus au pays de Massa. »
The Grand Duke Ferdinando was now an absolute sovereign of
an independent state, free of any external control. Austria could no longer lay
claim to any over-lordship and the authority of the Austrian Emperor over the
family of the Grand Duke was limited to the right of succession to the Austrian
hereditary estates and titles. The Grand Dukes, of course, were sensible to the
traditions of the House of Habsburg and, as eventual heirs to Austria in the
event of the extinction of the male line of Franz I, conformed to the laws of
the House in respect of marriage. The succession to Tuscany, however, could no
longer be dictated by Austria, even though the senior line of the House of
Habsburg-Lothringen remained next in line should the Grand Ducal line become
extinct in the male line.
The Grand Duchy retained many of the reforms introduced in
the Napoleonic period, including the Civil Code, but also restored the old
nobility and some of the ancien régime
institutions. By a decree dated 15 August 1815 the Ripristinazione dell'Ordine dei Cavalieri di S. Stefano was
proclaimed, announcing that a new Constitution and Statutes of the Order were
being prepared, authorizing all the members of the Order before its suppression
to reassume their previous rank and appointing five deputies, at Florence, Pisa,
Siena, Arezzo and Pistoia, as a temporary government. The new Constitution and
Statutes were proclaimed on 22 December 1817, restoring the Order to the
position it had enjoyed before 24 March 1799 and re-enforcing all the earlier
statutes and the amendments thereto. Article III stated that the Grand Duke
"assuming, and retaining for Us, and
for Our Successors to the Throne the Dignity, and Grade of Grand Master",
restored the Council of the Order whose members would be nominated by him. On 18th
March 1817 the Grand Duke announced the transfer to Tuscany of the Civil and
Military Order of San Giuseppe, confirmed with the publication of new statutes
on 1st August 1817.
In 1824 Grand Duke Ferdinando III was succeeded in 1824 by
his only son, Leopoldo II. The new ruler was a popular and enlightened monarch,
well-known to his subjects, being accustomed to walk freely among them and, like
King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, was a supporter of scientific advances
and new industrial technology. Although he reluctantly granted his state a
Constitution in 1848,
and had argued against sending troops to join Sardinian in her conflict with
Austria (nonetheless earning him the condemnation of his Viennese cousins), his
liberal tendencies were unappreciated by those who wished for even greater
reforms. Like his fellow sovereigns elsewhere in Italy, he was unable to contain
the political chaos which followed these concessions, and he was forced to flee
for safety in Gaeta (courtesy of his brother-in-law King Ferdinando II, where he
shared his exile with Pius IX). Austria’s intervention succeeded in restoring
the Grand Duke to his throne, but was managed in a heavy-handed fashion that
placed the Grand Duke in the unfortunate position of being obliged to the
Imperial forces. The Austrian commander, Acting Field Marshal Baron von
d’Aspre demanded that the Grand Duke appear in an Austrian uniform,
but Leopoldo refused and wore the uniform of the Tuscan National Guard. His
restoration was followed by a referendum in late 1849, in favor the restoration
of the Grand Ducal government, and Leopoldo willingly accepted the Constitution
he had promulgated earlier. Continuing unrest fomented by the machinations of
Garibaldi and other radical leaders, required the continued occupation of the
Grand Duchy by Austria, who demanded the suppression of the Constitution in
1852, to which the Grand Duke was forced to agree.
The 1849 Constitution is a useful guide to the prerogatives
of the Grand Duke, even though, after its suppression, as an absolute monarch he
was constrained only by precedence and tradition. “Title II, the Fundamental
Principles of the Tuscan Government,” conferred upon him all executive power,
as supreme head of the State (art. 13). He sanctioned and promulgated all laws
(art. 15); but these did not have effect unless signed by the responsible
minister (art. 16); the legislative power was collectively exercised by the
Grand Duke and the Assembly and the Grand Duke could dismiss the general Council
but must summon a new one in three months (art. 18); justice derives from the
Grand Duke (art 19), who nominates the judges (art. 20). The surviving
prerogatives of the Grand Duke were regulated by “Title IV, General
Dispositions:” the creation of new nobles pertained to the Grand Duke (art.
70); the Order of Santo Stefano conserved its prerogatives, properties and
statutes (art. 71); the Order of Merit under the Title of San Giuseppe conserved
its statutes (art. 72); and the Grand Duke had the right to institute new Orders
and in the decree the Statutes thereof (art.73).
The Concordat with the Holy See signed on 25th
April 1851 was an important milestone because it marked the recognition by the
Holy See that the title of Grand Duke continued to pertain to Tuscany’s
rulers, even though the original Papal Bull had limited its succession to the
agnates of Cosimo III. The Pope thus recognized the investiture of 1737 and its
consequent replacement of the original Bull.
Using the pretext that Tuscany had refused to join Sardinia in the latter's
second war against Austria, the Sardinian forces invaded the Grand Duchy where
they found conspirators ready to assist them overthrow the ruling dynasty. The
speed with which Sardinia and her assorted republican, radicals and romantic
supporters had managed to take over the north-Italian duchies was surprising to
many; over-reliance by Tuscany, Parma and Modena on Austrian troops, noted for
their less than competent generals and unpopular with the local populations, was
partially responsible. The Grand Ducal family was forced to leave the Grand
Duchy, amid the Addios of the
populace, on 27th April 1859 and removed to Germany. The family was
already doomed to exile, even though the Treaty of Villafranca of 11th
July 1859 between France and Austria had provided for the re-establishment of
the Grand Duke.
Leopoldo’s abdication as Grand Duke and Grand Master of the Orders of Santo
Stefano was forced in favor of his eldest son, who succeeded as Ferdinando IV,
on 21 July 1859, but he never returned to Florence.
The provisional government of Baron Bettino Ricasoli, of a
family that had profited singularly from Grand Ducal favors, rejected the
possible return of the Grand Duke outright, knowing that its own grab for power
would be immediately frustrated. The new government, ignoring the Treaty of
Villafranca, declared the dynasty deposed on 16th August 1859,
without bothering to seek the views of the Tuscan population. The Peace of
Zurich, which brought a temporary peace, also reserved the rights of the Grand
Duke and the Duke of Modena, since they had not been engaged in the war and the
powers continued to recognize their rights. This too was ignored by the
provisional government, and with a gesture towards democracy a referendum on the
future of the Grand Duchy was announced for 11th March 1860. The open
ballot, and the overt determination with which the new government advertised its
hostility to continued Tuscan independence did not deter all the supporters of
the Grand Duke. The voters supposedly gave a 95% majority for union with
Sardinia, and this event, like the referendum that in Giuseppe di Lampedusa’s
Donnafugata took place a year later, marked the birth pains of the new Italy.
The 5% which did not vote in favor was in reality multiplied several times by
the many Don Ciccio Tumeos, whose votes were ignored, but the time of the
Sovereign Grand Dukes had passed forever. On the 22nd March the
unification with Sardinia was proclaimed in Florence; the Grand Duke’s formal
protest to Sardinia on 26th March was ignored by the Powers, the new
Italian government and all but a handful of Tuscan loyalists. Despite the
purported abolition of the Order of Santo Stefano by the Provisional Government
on 15 November 1859, this act had no effect on the validity of the Papal Bull
which had granted it to the Medici Dukes of Florence and their heirs. The last
reigning Grand Duke could not stomach exile in Austria, and removed to Rome,
where he died on 29th January 1870, just a few months before the
Eternal City also fell to Sardinian troops. There his funeral in the Basilica of
the Santi Apostoli followed the protocol of a reigning sovereign, and was
attended by his cousin and fellow-exile, King Francesco II of the Two Sicilies,
Pope Pius IX and all the Cardinals assembled in Rome.
The government of the newly founded Kingdom of Italy,
despite the confidence that such purportedly widespread public support should
have inspired (if it had been genuine), remained nervous and uncertain. Austria
still controlled part of the North and had declined to recognize the newly
proclaimed Kingdom. The Duke of Modena had been put to flight and the Duke of
Parma, still a child, also. The last King of the Two Sicilies had made a brave
stand at the fortress island of Gaeta, but had to withdraw in February 1861 for
the comforts of the Palazzo Farnese and the protection of the Pope. Although
Sardinian troops had encroached well into the Papal States, the Pope showed no
sign of surrendering his temporal claims. It was Austria’s defeat by Prussia
rather than Italian generalship which brought Franz Josef to the bargaining
table at the Treaty of Vienna of 1866. Indeed Vittorio-Emanuele’s conduct of
the war with Austria was so incompetent that, but for Bismarck, Italy would not
even have recovered Venice, which the Austrian Emperor now regarded as an
expensive luxury, and which was ultimately granted to Italy thanks to the
intervention of Napoleon III.
Austria promised Italy that she would recognize Italian unity and withdraw all
recognition from the Archdukes who had ruled there. Franz Josef at first
demanded that the Grand Duke abandon his title, to which the Grand Duke
Ferdinando IV, initially a guest of the King of Bavaria, refused. Franz Josef
duly modified his request and, while allowing the Grand Duke to retain his title
ad personam, provided he abandoned his
claim to the former Grand Duchy, decided that his successors must forego it.
Austria, however, could not legally dispose of the sovereignty of Tuscany as if
it was some Austrian province; neither could the Emperor declare the dynasty
deprived of their dynastic rights and claims, whatever the dictates of political
Italy’s capital was first proclaimed in the Sardinian
capital of Torino, before being established in Florence, with the crude and
vulgar Vittorio Emanuele II installed in the splendors of the Palazzo Pitti. The
successful invasion of Rome enabled the new capital to be established there in
1870 and the Italian King moved to the large and sprawling Palazzo Quirinale.
Italy was unable to bully the Pope into submission, however, and the Lateran
Treaty of 1929 guaranteed forever Papal sovereignty and independence. Today
Papal sovereignty over the Vatican City State remains the sole vestige of pre-unitarian
Even if there was support for the Grand Duke in Tuscany,
there was little prospect of him exploiting it since those upon whom he should
have been able to rely most, the leaders of the Florentine nobility, had rushed
to seek favors from the new regime (and often recognition of their titles). His
status in Austria depended on the favor of the Emperor, who soon granted him a
substantial residence in Salzburg, which, while preferable to the constraints of
residing in stuffy and formal Vienna, was but a poor substitute for Florence.
The editors of the Almanach de Gotha,
which had retained a separate entry for Tuscany until 1865, reflected the
changing political landscape; in the following year the family was included at
the end of the entry under Austria, as “Branches non-régnante de la Maison d’Habsbourg-Lorraine. 1) Toscane.”
After the fall of the Austrian Empire, the senior line appeared as “I.
Ligne: d’Autriche-Hongrie” and the House of Tuscany as “II.
Ligne: de Toscane,” thus acknowledging their equivalency as once sovereign
families now deprived of its exercise.
The Grand Duke Ferdinando IV married twice; by his first
marriage to Princess Anne of Saxony he had an on only daughter; his wife died
shortly before the family was forced into exile, on 10th February
1859, the last member of the reigning dynasty to die in Florence. He remarried,
in 1868, to Princes Alicia of Bourbon-Parma and by her had a large and sometimes
unruly family. The eldest son, Leopoldo (1838-1935), who should have enjoyed the
title of Hereditary Grand Prince, was born in 1868 but abandoned his titles,
rank and name in 1902 to assume the humble identity of Leopold Wölfling (and
was eliminated from the Gotha from
He married unequally, leaving issue. The next child was a daughter, Luise, whose
marriage to the last reigning King of Saxony proved an unmitigated disaster.
Luise, in personality, bore a distinct resemblance to the late Diana, Princess
of Wales, anxious to assert her own popularity with the citizens of Dresden, she
made much of trivial issues such as the king’s refusal to allow her to ride
her bicycle around the city, which he considered undignified. After she
abandoned her husband and children, and was later briefly married to an Italian
musician, her name, like that of her elder brother, was removed from the Tuscany
entry in the Gotha in 1914.
Ferdinand IV continued to award the Tuscan Orders in exile,
but sparingly, although the last “professed” knight, accorded membership at
the end of the century, did not die until 1928.
The Grand Duke made approximately one hundred awards of San Giuseppe, to leading
figures in Tuscan society.
At his death in 1908 he was succeeded by his second son, the Archduke Giuseppe
(Joseph Ferdinand), who was not accorded the Grand Ducal title in the Gotha,
but when awarding the Tuscan Orders
and in granting certain titles of nobility, did so as Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Giuseppe married relatively late in life, at the age of forty-nine, to a widow
just a few years his junior. This
marriage ended in divorce, and he remarried civilly (again unequally) before the
death of his first wife, to a young noblewoman, Gertraud Tomanek Edler v.
Beyerfels. The son and daughter of this second marriage were born subsequent to
the death of his first wife, but were nonetheless canonically illegitimate.
These marriages did not conform to the traditions of the House, and the Grand
Duke Giuseppe himself considered them unequal, conferring upon his children new
titles of Prince and Princess of Florence.
Giuseppe proposed to Count Guelfo Guelfi that the Order of Santo Stefano be
restructured on the lines of the Constantinian Order, which had recently been
the object of several manifestations of papal support - unfortunately the onset
of the First World War made further progress impossible. The idea of reviving it
was again put forward in 1937 by some Tuscan nobles, but the occupation of
Austria by Hitler (who hated the Habsburgs) put the Archduke in a difficult
position and the idea was abandoned. In the same year a group of Italians led by
Barone (later Count) Pompeo Aloisi proposed re-establishing the Order as an
Italian State Order of Merit to be awarded for distinguished service in the
Italian navy, but this came to nothing.
of World War I had seen the end of the Habsburg Empire, and the humiliation of
becoming citizens of a petty and truncated republic, which promptly confiscated
the property of all those members of the Imperial House who refused to swear
loyalty. The Grand Duke and his brother, always loyal to the Head of the
dynasty, refused and suffered the loss of their personal property in an act of
vengeance which remains to the shame of Austria.
while the Tuscan junior line descended from Ferdinand IV’s
younger brother, Archduke Carl Salvator, accepted the republic and retained
their property (although they later proved unwilling to come to the aid of the
unfortunate Emperor, who died in impoverished exile in the Canary Islands,
leaving his large family to the care of the redoubtable Empress Zita).
Grand Duke Giuseppe (Joseph Ferdinand) died in 1942 and was
succeeded as Grand Duke by his next brother,
Archduke Pietro (Peter Ferdinand), who had married equally in 1900 to his
cousin, Princess Maria Cristina of the Two Sicilies, a daughter of the Count of
Caserta, by whom he had two sons. Pietro Ferdinando acted as Regent for his
brother in certain dealings with the Italian government in the late 1930s over
the Order of Santo Stefano. The proposal to revive the Order as an Italian state
award would have been illegal and the Grand Dukes Giuseppe and then Pietro
remained de jure Grand Masters. The
elder of Pietro’s two sons, Goffredo, born in 1902, succeeded him in 1948 as
Grand Duke Goffredo I and Grand Master of the Order of Santo Stefano; Goffredo
had married in 1938 Princess Dorothea of Bavaria. Goffredo took a closer
interest in his Tuscan inheritance than his father and made a handful of awards
of the Orders of Santo Stefano and San Giuseppe. When he died in 1984 he was
succeeded by his only son, Archduke Leopoldo, born in 1942, who had married in
1965 Mlle Laetitia de Belzunce d’Arenberg, the daughter of Henri de Belzunce
and Marie-Thérèse de la Poëze d’Harambure, and adopted daughter of Eric-Engelbert,
Duke of Arenberg. The new Grand Duke
Leopoldo III presided over the reorganization of both the Orders of Santo
Stefano (23rd January 1993)
and San Giuseppe (1st January 1990 and 15 January 1992), and became
the first Head of the Dynasty for one hundred and thirty years to visit Florence
regularly. Grand Duke Leopoldo abdicated as Grand Duke and Grand Master of the
Orders of Santo Stefano and San Giuseppe on 18 June 1993,
in favor of his eldest son, the Archduke Sigismondo.
The Grand Duke Sigismondo has further extended the
membership of both dynastic Orders since his succession. The statutes of Order
of Santo Stefano have been revised again, as have those of San Giuseppe
(introducing the grades of Grand Officer between Grand Cross and Commander, and
that of Officer between Commander and Knight). He has visited Florence regularly
and has taken a considerable interest in the cultural life of Tuscany. On 11th
September 1999 he was married at the London Oratory to Miss Elyssa Edmonstone,
in a ceremony witnessed by many members of Europe’s royal families and the
The Tuscan secondogeniture
is one of two such dynastic arrangements in the House of Habsburg-Lothringen;
the other being the secondogeniture
established in respect of the succession to the Duchy of Modena.
Modena, like Tuscany, had achieved sovereign independence by the Treaty of
Vienna of 1815 and when it became clear by the early 1860s that the would be no
male heirs in the direct line, Austria claimed the considerable Este inheritance
for the nearest Archduke to the Emperor, who would succeed under the Austrian
interpretation of the terms of the original secondogeniture. The next heirs were firstly the Archduke
Maximilian, short-lived Emperor of Mexico (executed 1867), then the Archduke
Karl-Ludwig (died 1896) and then the latter’s son, the Archduke Franz
Ferdinand. Francis V the last
reigning Duke of Modena, however, by then in exile, considered that as the
investiture of 1771 did not restrict the succession to males (females being
admitted under the ancient succession laws both to Modena, and the Cibo
Malaspina inheritance of Massa and Carrara), that his niece was eligible to
succeed. As Modena had been entirely independent since 1815 the Duke considered
he could dispose of the throne as he wished, in accordance with the historic
laws of succession. Francis V’s decision to name his niece as eventual heiress
was most unwelcome in Vienna, however, where the Imperial family was keen to
acquire the Duke’s considerable fortune as well as his claims to Modena.
Eventually the Duke was persuaded to name the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, provided
the Archduke assumed the name Austria-Este; the Duke agreed, but also required
that, if he declined, the inheritance would pass first to the latter’s
brothers Otto and Ferdinand, and failing them, out of the House of Habsburg
altogether to the Bourbon Dukes of Madrid and of San Jaime (both of them later
Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain).
Franz Ferdinand, unsurprisingly, did not decline this
enormous legacy, and on the Duke’s death duly inherited. But with the death
(by suicide) of Crown Prince Rudolf, Franz Ferdinand became Austrian Heir
Presumptive and the Este name and inheritance was passed to his nephew, Archduke
Karl, son of his dissolute brother Otto. When Franz Ferdinand
was assassinated at Sarajevo and Karl became Heir Presumptive in turn, this
succession was designated to pass to his second son, and in 1917, by which time
he had succeeded as Emperor, Karl duly named his second son, the Archduke
Robert, as Este heir. As such Robert became by right Head of a new ex-regnant
branch, of Modena, and successor as titular Duke, with jurisdiction over his
descendants, all of whom would be entitled to the title of Prince of Modena,
although he did not in fact assume this title or the associated prerogatives.
He has since been succeeded as Archduke of Austria-Este (and de
jure Duke of Modena) by his eldest son, Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este,
Prince of Belgium.
The Modenese succession cannot be compared precisely. Even
though the requirements of the secondogeniture were followed in practice (but for the omission of
Archduke Karl Ludwig, Franz Ferdinand’s father and Archduke Otto, Emperor
Karl’s father), the procedure by which this happened, the testament of the
last Duke, allowed for the possibility of an alternative (the succession of the
Bourbon Dukes of Madrid and San Jaime as co-heirs to the Este estates) not
envisaged in the original Imperial investiture. The situation of Modena as an
independent state following the dissolution of the Empire in 1806 was comparable
to that of Tuscany but, unlike Tuscany, the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 had
specifically re-enforced the 1753 convention on Modena and the 1771 investiture
with the secondogeniture arrangement. Thus this effectively became enforced even
after Modena achieved absolute sovereignty and independence.
There are several other dynasties of which there are
multiple reigning branches; but over which the head of the particular House has
only limited rights over the other reigning, or formerly reigning branches. The
House of Bourbon-Spain, for example, is divided into the branches of Spain, the
Two Sicilies and Parma; the latter two both enjoy rights to the Spanish throne
under the Constitution of 1876, whose provisions in respect of the members of
the dynasty appear to have been revalidated by the recognition of Juan Carlos as
“legitimate heir of the ancient dynasty” in the Spanish Constitution of
The designation of the system of succession to Spain and
the Two Sicilies was first made in the Pragmatic Decree of Carlos III (that same
Infante Don Carlos who had been heir to Tuscany) as King of both, in 1759 –
this required that the two Crowns never be united and that if the King of the
Two Sicilies succeeded to the Spanish Crown, he must abdicate the Italian
Sovereignty to the next son who was not heir to Spain. The decree of 1759 was
reinforced in the Two Sicilies Constitutions of 1820, 1848 and 1860 (in force
when the dynasty was deposed). When there was a dispute over the succession in
the dynasty of the Two Sicilies, over the precise interpretation of the 1759
decree, the King of Spain as successor of Carlos III, in 1983 ordered a detailed
investigation by the highest organs of the Spanish state, which concluded in
favor of the senior male heir of the Two Sicilies branch.
Carlos III of Spain had not acted in 1759 simply as investor of the Two Sicilies
Crown, but as actual inheritor of both the Two Sicilies and Spanish thrones when
he laid down the system of succession, and King Juan Carlos was his undoubted
representative. In 1759, as in 1983, the King had consulted with the highest
organs and officials of the state in determining the succession; this could not
be an arbitrary act. This contrasts with the position of the heads of the
Imperial House of Austria, whose Monarchy was founded in 1804, and who, because
of the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, lost any claim to invest the Grand
Duchy of Tuscany or Duchy of Modena. The Imperial investiture of Tuscany in
1763, was made by the Emperor and Grand Duke Franz (Francesco), in his capacity
as Emperor but not as ruler of Austria or Grand Duke.
When the Empire ceased to exist, so did all the prerogatives associated with the
exercise of the Imperial title.
The limitation of the rights of the heads of dynasties with
multiple reigning or formerly reigning branches, however, is demonstrated in
1923, when the Count of Caserta authorized the marriage of his son Ranieri to
Countess Carolina Zamoyska.
This authorization was in accordance with the Two Sicilies law of 1829, which
imposed upon the head of the House the duty to maintain the “splendor and
purity” of the House, but did not conform to the requirements of the Spanish
Pragmatic Decree of 1776 requiring equal marriage. Alfonso XIII of Spain’s
jurisdiction was limited to the rights of Prince Ranieri to Spain, and his
determination that the issue of this marriage would not be considered Spanish
dynasts could not affect the right to the royal styles and titles or the
succession rights of the issue of this marriage to the Two Sicilies succession.
The successive Dukes of Parma, the third line of the House of Bourbon, had
continued to accept from the Kings of Spain the title of Infant of Spain; the
last reigning Duke, also an Infante, died in 1907. As a result of the marriage
of the King of Etruria to a sister of Ferdinand VII, this line also enjoyed
Spanish rights under the 1876 Constitution. Thus the Parmesan princes were
similarly subject to Spanish rules in respect of their Spanish rights, but not
their Parmesan – and indeed the present Duke of Parma was the issue of a
marriage that was unrecognized by Alfonso XIII and the Count of Barcelona for
Spanish succession purposes.
The House of Saxe-Coburg at the time of the promulgation of
its House Laws in 1855, had provided the Consorts of the Queens of Great Britain
and Ireland and of Portugal, and the King of the Belgians; it was later to
provide the Monarchs of Great Britain and of Portugal, and the Kings of
Bulgaria. The effects of these House laws were limited to the succession to the
Duchy, and could not affect the succession rights of members of the royal houses
of Great Britain (one of whose princes ultimately succeeded as Coburg Duke),
Portugal, Belgium or Bulgaria, whose marriages and individual succession rights
were regulated solely by the Heads of those individual royal houses. Similarly
the House of Schleswig-Holstein has provided the reigning dynasties of Denmark
and Norway and the former reigning Houses of Greece, Russia and Oldenburg; the
senior male of the House, however, does not enjoy any jurisdiction over the
marriages of these lines.
The members of the Royal House of Hannover use the title of
Prince of Great Britain and Ireland even though King George V of Great Britain
in 1917 limited the succession of this title to the grandchildren in the male
line of the sovereign.
This designation may be regarded as a legal title of the Duchy of Brunswick (the
last state over which this line ruled, until 1918) and Hannover, even if it is
irrelevant in the context of the British succession. Nonetheless it is accorded
to them by every major genealogical work of reference and is still used by
members of the family. Similarly, all Princes of Greece are also styled Princes
of Denmark, even though Denmark has instituted female line succession and the
members of the Greek branch do not have any rights to the Danish throne.
The Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria instituted new laws of
the House of Habsburg, the “Familienstatut,”
on 3 February 1839.
This recognized the autonomy of the sovereign branches of the House in Title
III, article 22,
which read as follows (Translation): “In the branches of the "Erzhaus"
(the House of Habsburg) which possess sovereignty of their own, the heads of
such branches shall exercise the rights of the supreme head of the joint family
in the matter of the marriages of their own members. It can be expected with
confidence that, taking due consideration to the joint rights of all family
members and the ties uniting all branches of the family as a whole, the uniform
principles and the joint family interests which have always existed in the
"Erzhaus" (the House of Habsburg) will not be disregarded in any of
has since been revised recently by the Archduke Otto, allowing any marriage to a
member of the nobility
to be considered dynastic, but the revision could not extend to revising the
rights of the other sovereign branches of the Imperial House over the members of
their own dynasty and dynastic rights, in respect of succession to the Headships
of these sovereign branches.
Nor could such revision revoke the principles of autonomy of the other reigning
branches, now non-reigning, laid out in article 22 of the Familienstatut. One may observe, therefore, that the Grand Duke of
Tuscany enjoys the same authority over members of the Tuscan branch of the House
of Habsburg-Lothringen, in respect of their Tuscan rights and titles as the Head
of the senior line, the Archduke Otto, over the members of the different
branches of the House of Austria not descended from the Grand Duke Ferdinand
The Grand Duke also continues to enjoy all the prerogatives of his predecessors
as Grand Master of the Orders of Santo Stefano and of Merit under the Title of
San Giuseppe. Naturally the head of the Grand Ducal line is required under
article 22 of the Familienstatut to
respect the traditions of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen in regard to
marriages of members of the dynasty, and he will not impose any regulations of
marriages arbitrarily or inequitably.
The editors of the various genealogical publications, which
have followed the pre-1944 Almanachs de
Gotha in denying the title of Grand Duke to the heads of this House
(limiting his titles to those of Austria, Hungary and Bohemia), perhaps because
of the pre-First World War political interests of the House of Austria, have
erred, since the House of Tuscany is no less independent from Austria than the
Grand Ducal House of Oldenburg from the dictates of the senior primogeniture
heir, the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksberg, or the Royal
Houses of Bulgaria, Brunswick-Hannover, and Belgium, from regulation by the Duke
of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The Heads of Europe’s non-reigning royal houses each use
titles associated with their dynasty; what is significant about the title of
Grand Duke is that it was invested in Francis of Lorraine and his successors,
then Archduke Ferdinand and his, and this investiture has never been revoked.
It is hoped that this error will be corrected by the editors of the Genealogisches
Hansbuch des Adels: Furstliche Hauser, published by Starke Verlag, in future
Fortunately, the Archduke Otto as Head of the Imperial House of Austria has respected the autonomy of the Tuscan line, and it is worth noting that the latter’s successor as Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece has done likewise. Hence the complete roll of members of the Order published in 2002 under authority of Archduke Karl, among the nominations made by Archduke Otto as Sovereign of the Order in the promotion of 30th November 1932, number 1211, names “Godefroi Archiduc d’Autriche” as “ensuite Grand-Duc de Toscane”. Any suggestion, therefore, that the Head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg-Lothringen does not acknowledge the titles of the Head of the Tuscan branch is clearly mistaken. Good relations between the different branches of the family must be based on mutual respect, and one may be reassured that the House of Habsburg-Lothringen will not be divided by the kind of disputes which have bedeviled so many royal houses.
 Alessandro was the natural son of Lorenzo II de’ Medici, Duke of Urbino, great-grandson of Lorenzo I (Il Magnifico) and 6th in descent from Giovanni de’ Medici (d. 1429); Cosimo I was 5th in descent from Giovanni, their only common male line ancestor.
 “…Attendentes etiam, quod sane plurimi facimus, dictum Cosmum Ducem, ac dilectum filium nobilem virum Franciscum ejus filium primogenitum arctis admodum affinitatis, sanguinis, & necessitudinis vinculis cum carissimo in Christo filio nostro Maximiliano in Imperatorem electo, & maximis Christiani nominis Regibus conjunctos esse, eosque a nobilissima stirpe Medicea multis honoribus & titulis decorata, & ea qua tot illustres proceres, ac tres Romani Pontifices prodierunt, ortum habere. Proptera eumdem Cosmum Ducem specialibus favoribus, & gratiis paterne benigneque prosequi volentes, ipsumque a quibusvis excommunicationis, suspensionis & interdicti, aliisqu. Ecclesiasticis sententiis, censuris & poenis a jure, vel ab homine quavis occasione, vel causa latis, si quibus quomodolibet innodatus existit, ad effectum praesentium dumtaxat conseq., harum ferie absolventes, & absolutum fore censentes, Motu proprio, non ad ipsius Cosmi Ducis, seu alterius pro eo Nobis super hoc oblatae petitionis instantiam, sed ex certa scientia, maturaq. deliberatione, & mera liberalitate nostris, ac de supremae nostrae Apostolicae potestatis plenitudine, tam dictorum Praedecessorum, quam etiam Alexandri III. & Innocenti pariter III. ac Pauli IV. similiter Praedecessorum nostrorum, qui Portugalliae, & Bulgarorum, ac Blancorum, necnon Hiberniae Reges, & ut tunc Dux Bohemiae, Rex in suis literis nominari possit, respective crearunt, constituerunt, & concesserunt, aliorumq. Romanorum Pontific. erga diversos Principes, exempla sequentes, vestigiique inhaerentes, ut potissimum ceteri Principes hoc exemplo invitati ad bene de Sancta hac Sede promerendum incitentur, eumdem Cosmum Ducem ejusque Successores pro tempore existentes Duces, perpetuis futuris temporibus in Magnos Duces, & Principes Provinciae Etruriae sibi pro maxima illius parte subiectae, & in ipsa Provincia respective Auctoritate Apostolica tenore praesentium creamus, constituimus, pronunciamus, declaramus, Magnorumque Ducum Etruriae Provinciae, ut praefertur, ejus subjectae nomine, titulo, & denominatione extollimus, & amplificamus, necnon eos dictae Etruriae Provinciae eis subjectae Magnos Duces, & Principes ab omnibus appellari, inscribi, dici, haberi, censeri, & tractari debere volumus, praecipimus, ac mandamus, atque Cosmum Magnum Ducem, ejusque Successores praefatos omnibus, & singulis exemptionibus, immunitatibus, libertatibus, favoribus, praeeminentiis, praerogativis, indultis, privilegiis, aliisque alii vere liberi, & directi Domini, ac Magni Duces, & Principes etiam Ducali, aut alia quavis etiam majori dignitate praefulgentes, ac quacumque libera, & absoluta potestate fungentes, in genere vel in specie, in quibuscumque locis, pompis, sessionibus, celebritatibus, caeremoniis, & actibus publicis vel privatis, tam de jure, quam de consuetudine, etiam in Aula nostra Vaticana, & ubique Terrarum, etiam si alii Magni, & Similes Duces, & Principes praesentes fuerint, quoquo modo utuntur, fruuntur, potiuntur, & guadent, seu uti, frui, potiri, & gaudere in fiturum quomodolibet poterunt, & soliti sunt, non quidem ad illorum instar, sed pariformiter, & absque ulla prorsus differentia uti, frui, potiri, & gaudere posse, ac debere.
 Under the ancien régime, France and Venice, and France and the Religion of Malta (as it was designated) exchanged Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; while Tuscany, Modena, Genoa and Parma exchanged only Envoys and Ministers Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; indeed for much of the 18th century Tuscany was represented in Paris only by a chargé des affaires. In the 19th century, the post was substituted by Minister Extraordinary and Pleniopotentiary.
 Sometimes translated as “Ecclesiastical”.
 qui tu primus, quoad vixeris, et pro tempore existens Florentiae Dux esse debeat, ac certo Militum nobilium, et alia juxta dispositionem tuam, qualificatorum numero sub tua, ac pro tempore existenti Magistri hujusmodi obedientia, ac per te, tam a primaeva erectione, quam alias occurrente vacatione, ac per successores tuos Florentiae Duces, ipsius Militiae Magistros, perpetuo instituendorum ...". Extracted from Statuti dell'Ordine dei Cavalieri di S. Stefano reprinted with the additions from the time of Cosimo II and Ferdinando II and of the Emperor Francis I, at Pisa 1746 (extracted from Carmelo Arnone, Le Apprensioni d'Abito del S.M.O. di S. Stefano, in the Rivistà Araldica, May 1954, pp. 157-168).
 "... ac eundem Cosmum, et pro existentem Florentiae Ducem, in Magnum Magistrum ejusdem Militiae, cum honoribus, oneribus, praerogativis et facultatibus, quibus alii aliarum Militarum, dicta auctoritate confirmatarum, Magistri inter suos Milites quomodolibet utuntur, fruuntur, et gaudent, similter perpetuo constituimus et deputamus, illique praedicta immutandi, et reformandi, ac alia quaecumque Ordinationes et Statuta ad ejusdem Militiae directionem facientia ..... See Arnone, op.cit., p.158. This Bull confirmed the non-territorial but family nature of the Grand Magistery by granting it to Cosimo "ad posteritatis suae decus et honorem".
 With both of Cosimo III’s sons childless, Cardinal Francesco Maria was reluctantly persuaded by his brother to renounce Holy Orders and marry; the wife he was presented with, Princess Eleonora Gonzaga di Guastalla e Sabbioneta, was twenty, attractive and for a man with a greater enthusiasm for the opposite sex, younger and in better health, no doubt an excellent choice. Unfortunately, so horrified was the young princess by the prospect of intimate relations with the aging ex-prelate that at first no inducement would persuade her to submit. Eventually she reluctantly succumbed, but after this first effort could not be persuaded to return to the marital bed; her husband despondent at the ridicule he had attracted, expired of the dropsy in 1711.
 Harold Acton, The Last Medici, London, 1930-1980, p.235.
 Acton, op.cit., pp. 260-261.
 Their sovereign, Prince Boncompagni Ludovisi, had perhaps imprudently sought investiture from Felipe V, rather than the Archduke Charles, which provided an excuse for the Emperor to reclaim them as Imperial fiefs (whose right of investiture, like that of Siena, had been accorded to Spain).
 The Duke of Savoy had received the Kingdom of Sicily as a reward for his support of the Emperor in the War of the Spanish succession, as part of the Utrecht settlement.
 Acton, op. cit., p. 269.
 Ever since her return to live in Florence, relations between herself and Gian Gastone had steadily deteriorated.
 By a Bull of 1738 the Pope confirmed D. Carlos succession to the ecclesiastical dignity of Grand Master of the Constantinian Order of Saint George, thus acknowledging the establishment of the dignity in the person of the Farnese heir, rather than the Duchy of Parma..
 Infante Don Felipe de Borbón y Farnese would eventually be established as Duke of Parma by Spanish troops in 1747, and be confirmed as such with the addition of the former Gonzaga Duchy of Guastalla by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. Papal investiture was not sought or granted, however, and the Duke of Parma did not acquire any rights to the Farnese allodial estates or the Constantinian Grand Magistery, which remained with his brother, the King of Naples (and from 1759 with the latter’s younger son, Ferdinando). Although the new Emperor, by then Grand Duke Francesco of Tuscany, consented to the arrangements in the Treaty, Parma was not reinvested on Felipe.
 This ambition would eventually be fulfilled in 1859.
 Confirmed the 13 December 1736 and in the definitive Peace Treaty of 18 November 1738.
 The Dowager Electress Palatine Anna Maria de’ Medici died on 18th February 1743, lonely and almost forgotten in her apartments in the Pitti Palace; the news of her death, however, seemed to recall for the Florentines the glorious days of their past and occasioned great public demonstrations of sorrow.
 A comic figure, his father a M. de Beauvau had been a minor noble in attendance upon the old Duke of Lorraine but had obliged by marrying the Duke’s mistress who, according to Horace Walpole, had been a buxom farm girl driving turkeys in a field when she caught the ducal eye. Crude and vulgar, with a boorish sense of humor, Beauvau-Craon (who had been elevated to the rank of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire) was wont to scratch himself in public in his most intimate places. While he was at least entertaining to the Florentine notables, who could amuse themselves with stories of his lack of grace; those whom he appointed in the Grand Duke’s name were mostly Lorrainers and Germans anxious only to turn their offices to profit at the expense of the citizenry.
 Text published by François Velde on www.heraldica.org, referenced as Source: 35 CTS 41. The Italian text, in Martens: Recueil des Principaux Traités, suppl., vol. 1, p. 234, comes from Crome, Staatsverwaltung von Toscana, vol. III, p. 3, also in Codice della Toscana legislazione, vol. I, p. 1 (Italian text corrected version here). This continues, in regard to the investiture: “Ma in specie seriamente commendiamo, ed ingiungiamo a tutti, ed a ciascheduno dei Luogotenenti, Consiglieri, Pretori del Gran Ducato di Toscana, … ed a tutti gli altri di qualunque preminenza, dignità, condizione, e grado che siano, presenti, e futuri Vassalli Nostri e del Sacro Romano Impero, che tosto che per la morte del presente Gran Duca senza Prole Legittima Maschile mancherà la stirpe Mascolina della Casa de' Medici, conoscano per proprio, vero, e legittimo Signore, e Principe il sopranominato Duca di Lorena e di Bar Francesco Terzo Nostro Carissimo Genero; o se Esso in tal tempo non fosse più vivo, il di lui Erede, e Successore nel modo, e coll' ordine sopradetto, ed al medesimo prestino il solito Omaggio, Giuramento di fedeltà, riverenza ed obbedienza, e cosi facciano tutte quelle cose, che bisogna, e conviene, che li fedeli ed obbedienti Vassalli, e sudditi facciano, e prestino ai loro veri, e legittimi Signori, e Principi; non ostante, e senza avere riguardo alcuno a qualunque cosa, che fosse altramente, e fin qui è stata esposta, prima d'ora disposta, fatta, o tentata, ovvero che in avvenire si disporrà, si farà, o si tenterà, e specialmente non ostante e senza riguardo alcuno all' eventuale investitura conceduto tempo fa ala nominato successore al Gran Duca di Toscana nel trattato della Quadruplice Alleanza, giacche con tutta la Nostra Imperiale potestà pienamente deroghiamo a tutte, ed a ciascheduna di queste cose, quantunque qui non siano specialmente espresse, come atti o da se nulli, e vani, o che sono stati mutati medianti posteriori condizioni, e patti fatti col consenso del Sacro Romano Impero, e corroborati in oltre colli solenni Instrumenti delle rinunzie, e delle cessioni in nome di tutti quelli, che dalla predetta Quadruplice Alleanza venivano chiamati all' eventuale successione nel Gran Ducato di Toscana.”
 Named as “Filio Nostro postgenito Serenissimo Leopoldo Hungariae, Bohemiaeque Regio Principe, Austriae Archiduce.”
 When Charles III transferred the “Italian Dominions” to his second son (third by nature, the eldest being excluded because of his mental infirmity), Prince and Infante Don Ferdinando, in the Pragmatic Decree of 6th October 1759, following the requirement of article II of the Treaty of Naples of 3rd October of that year, these included the titles of Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany and Duke of Parma and Piacenza. Ten days following, on the 16th October, Charles transferred to this same son the position of “primogenito legittimo farnesiano” and as such Constantinian Grand Master.
 The Queen Regent of Etruria abdicated to her infant son on October 10th, 1807, hoping to insure the survival of the kingdom in the face of increasing Napoleonic ambition; but the Kingdom of Etruria was ceded to France by Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau of 27th October 1807 and incorporated into France on 28 March 1808. The title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but without any regalian powers, was accorded to Napoleon’s sister Elise, Princess Bacchiochi, Sovereign Princess of Massa and Carrara.
 In a subsidiary clause, the Treaty provided that « Le prince Ludovisi Buoncompagni conservera, pour lui et ses successeurs légitimes, toutes les propriétés que sa famille possédait dans la principauté de Piombino, dans l'île d'Elbe et ses dépendances, avant l'occupation de ces pays par les troupes françaises de 1799, y compris les mines, usines et salines. Le prince Ludovisi conservera également le droit de pêche, et jouira d'une exemption de droits parfaite, tant pour l'exportation des produits de ses mines, usines, salines et domaines, que pour l'importation des bois et autres objets nécessaires pour l'exploitation des mines. Il sera de plus indemnisé par S.A.I. le grand-duc de Toscane, de tous les revenus que sa famille tirait des droits régaliens avant l'année 1801. En cas qu'il survint des difficultés dans l'évaluation de cette indemnité, les parties intéressées s'en rapporteront à la décision des cours de Vienne et de Sardaigne. » Thus the hopes of the Boncompagni Ludovisi to be restored as sovereigns were dashed forever and the Tuscans acquired a territory they had coveted for 250 years.
 The former republic of Lucca had been a thorn in the side of Tuscany for centuries; now, after being granted to the former Duke of Parma, it was to revert as part of the settlement by which the former Empress Marie-Louise was given Parma for her life, with the reversion to the Bourbon Dukes after her death.
 Although this would appear to restrict the succession of the Grand Magistery, as it limited it to the successors to “the throne”, it was actually beyond the powers of the Grand Master to amend the system of succession laid down in the original Bull and giving the Order a dynastic character.
 This Constitution did not make any provisions regarding the succession to the Grand Duchy.
 Leopoldo was an honorary Austrian Field Marshal and the issue of Austrian uniform remained a bone of contention between him and d’Aspre. Eventually Leopoldo gave way, and wore the uniform just once, at a performance at the opera; this was later used as a weapon against him by the Mazzinians and other radicals, but it was difficult to see what Leopoldo could have done as he had already angered the Austrian government by refusing to accept the immediate restoration of autocracy.
TITOLO II. PRINCIPI FONDAMENTALI DEL GOVERNO TOSCANO. ART. 11. - Le leggi
dell'arruolamento militare sono obbligatorie per tutti i cittadini. ART. 12.
- La persona del Granduca è inviolabile e sacra. ART. 13. -. Al solo
Granduca appartiene il potere esecutivo: Egli è il capo supremo dello Stato.
Egli comanda tutte le forze di terra e di mare, dichiara la guerra, fa i
trattati di pace, di alleanza e di commercio; nomina a tutti gl'impieghi
giudiziarii, governativi, amministrativi e militari; mantiene col mezzo de'
suoi rappresentanti le relazioni colle potenze estere, e provvede con
Motuproprii e Regolamenti alla esecuzione delle leggi, senza mai sospenderle
o dispensare dall'osservanza di esse. ART. 14. - Nessuna truppa straniera
potrà essere chiamata al servizio dello Stato, se non in virtù di una
legge. ART. 15. - Il solo Granduca sanziona le leggi e le promulga. ART. 16.
- Le leggi e gli atti del Governo non hanno vigore, se non sono muniti della
firma di uno dei Ministri. I ministri sono risponsabili.
17. - Il potere legislativo sarà collettivamente esercitato dal Granduca e
da due Assemblee deliberanti, che sono il Senato, ed il Consiglio generale.
Il Granduca può sciogliere il Consiglio generale: convoca il nuovo
Consiglio dentro tre mesi. ART. 18. - La proposta delle leggi appartiene al
Granduca, ed a ciascuna delle due assemblee. ART. 19. - La giustizia deriva
dal Granduca, ed è amministrata da giudici ch'egli nomina ed istituisce.
Egli può far grazie e commutar le pene. ART. 20. - I giudici nominati dal
Granduca, eccetto quelli dei tribunali minori sono inamovibili dopo che
avranno esercitate le loro funzioni per lo spazio di tre anni. TITOLO VIII.
DISPOSIZIONI GENERALI. ART. 70. - La nobiltà toscana è conservata colle
sue onorificenze. La creazione di nuovi nobili appartiene al Granduca. Art.
71. - È conservato l'ordine sacro e militare di Santo Stefano Papa e
martire colle sue prerogative, dotazioni e statuti. ART. 72. - L'ordine del
merito sotto il titolo di S. Giuseppe è pure conservato col suo statuto.
ART. 73. - Il Granduca ha il diritto d'istituire nuovi ordini, e ne decreta gli statuti. ART. 74. - La collazione di tutti i benefizii di patronati regii, e pertinenti al patrimonio della corona, e l'esercizio dei diritti che ne dipendono, spettano al Granduca. See http://www.bdp.it/~costituz/storiche/toscana.htm (referenced on www.heraldica.org).
 Prof. Dott. Andrea Drigani, Docente Straordinario di Diritto Canonico nella Facoltà Teoligica dell’Italia Centrale, has pointed out in a Parere “Pro Veritate”, that since according to Canon Law, “Lex posterior abrogate priorem sit directe contraria,” juridical acts of a Pontiff could be revoked not only by explicit acts, but also by juridical acts directly in conflict. Thus the explicit recognition of the Grand Dukes in 1851, marks a recognition of the supremacy of the investiture of 1737.
 This provided that the Grand Duke and Duke of Modena should be restored to their states, but that Parma would be accorded to France which had granted it to Sardinia.
 Conte Neri Capponi cites a conversation with Marcella Traballesi (nata Nobili della Scala), both of whose ancestors served in Ricasoli’s provisional government. She recalled reading in a letter retained in her family’s archives from Marchese Gino Capponi to her ancestor, noting the concerns of the government when the results came in showing a majority for the Grand Duke; using the excuse of a public holiday the announcement was delayed, allowing time for the results to be manipulated giving a huge majority for union with Sardinia. It was for such conspicuous acts of loyalty to the new regime (and disloyalty to the Grand Duke) that Ricasoli earned his position in the first government of Victor Emmanuel II. Unfortunately the Nobili archives were destroyed in a fire set by the Germans at the end of World War II; such inconvenient facts were naturally suppressed during the Savoy Monarchy. Written communication to the author, 23 August 2002.
 The real cost for Austria was the loss of territory to Prussia, the dispossession of her German allies, and her exclusion from the German confederation, laying the seeds of the desire for a greater German state that was exploited so effectively by Hitler. Nonetheless, while Lombardy and Venice had been the fruits of conquest in 1713 and 1815, the loss of the southern Tyrol was a far greater blow, having been part of the Habsburg hereditary estates for centuries.
 A year later this was changed to “Lignes collaterals ci-devant régnante …”, a style that was retained until 1890 when it was substituted with the simple “Branche non-regnante: Toscane”, and the family inserted in its genealogical position under Austria, rather than at the end of the Austrian entry. This was revised again following the end of the Empire (see above).
 The Hereditary Grand Prince informed his father that he wished to give up his rights and titles, and leave the dynasty; the Grand Duke agreed provided that he also obtained the Emperor’s permission. The Archduke duly requested permission of the Emperor on 14 Dec 1902 and received permission three days later; this was followed by a formal act of renunciation of his Austrian, Hungarian and Bohemian titles. His father accepted renunciation of his Tuscan titles in a separate letter.
 She was divorced and renounced all her rights and titles as Crown Princess in 1903; to prevent her regaining her Austrian titles, normal under the divorce laws of the Dual Monarchy, the scandalized Franz Josef declared her deprived of all her titles of the House of Austria.
 Count Pasini Frassoni, who made profession with permission of Papal Secretary of State Cardinal Rampolla in the Chapel of the Cardinal Vicar of Rome. See Conte Neri Capponi, “Il Sacro Militare Ordine di S. Stefano Papa e Martire e il Sacro Militare Ordine Costantiniano di San Giorgio quali enti canonici”, in Gli Ordini Dinastici della I.E.R. Casa Granducale di Toscana e della Reale Casa Borbone Parma, Pisa, 2001. This is firm evidence that the Holy See considered the acts of the provisional government in respect of the Order, without effect.
 He also continued to award the Tuscan Order of Military Merit, founded in 1855, as he was colonel-in-chief of the 66th Austrian Infantry, and 16th Bavarian infantry regiments.
 He made two awards of Santo Stefano; to Count Guelfo Guelfi (1913) and Count Ferrucio Pasini Frassoni (1921).
 For example, that of Duke of Giglio, Count of Palazzo Vecchio, and Marquess on Noble Stefanelli di Prenterhof e Hohenmaur, with the title of Count and Countess and Don and Donna for his all his descendants in the male line, by patent dated 1918.
 The first marriage of the Grand Duke Giuseppe , which had taken place in 1921 contraty to the Habsburg House Laws, was ignored by the Gotha until the 1928 edition. The second was included in the 1929 and subsequent editions, both of them then being described as “mariage non-égal de naissance”
 By a royal decree of King Vittorio Emanuele III, dated 14 February 1939 (no 1433), an “Institution of Knights of Santo Stefano Pope and Martyr” was founded to maintain a living record of the Order and the traditions of the Italian navy and to fund scholarships for the sons of Italian sailors. This still flourishes and has sponsored studies of the naval history of the Mediterranean in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries as well as an annual conference.
 Austria relented in the early 1930s and returned much of the Habsburg private property; Hitler commanded its immediate confiscation following the Anschlüss and, when Austria regained its independence in 1955 this was the only law of the Hitler era that the petty-minded government of the Republic refused to repeal.
 Some authors have maintained that Grand Duke Giuseppe abdicated in 1921, on his unequal marriage; there, is however no documentary evidence to support this. Indeed, had he done so, he could not have created the children by his second marriage, Prince and Princess of Florence.
 The Belzunce, or Belsunce family were of chivalric extraction of considerable distinctions, and styled Marquis de Belzunce.
 These statutes considerably simplify the structure of the Order and bring it more into line with the reforms of similar institutions during the course of the last century. The members are now divided into Cavalieri Militi, Cavalieri Sacerdoti and Cappellani, and ladies. The knights and dames are divided into Justice and Grace, the former having to prove (a) that their four grandparents were born noble, or were the children of ennobled fathers, or (b) that they were descended in the male line from knight of Justice of Santo Stefano or from someone inscribed before 27 April 1859 in the Libro d'Oro of the Grand Duchy, or (c) are nobles by birth or inheritance who hold high public office or have particularly served the Order, and in (b) and (c) that their mothers were born noble. All knights and dames must be Catholic, although an exception is made for Sovereigns, Heads of States and members of royal families who are members of the other Christian denominations. They must also prove that they lead a virtuous life, that they have attained their majority, and are of suitable standing in society. These statutes considerably simplify the structure of the Order and bring it more into line with the reforms of similar institutions during the course of the last century. The members are now divided into Cavalieri Militi, Cavalieri Sacerdoti and Cappellani, and ladies. The knights and dames are divided into Justice and Grace, the former having to prove (a) that their four grandparents were born noble, or were the children of ennobled fathers, or (b) that they were descended in the male line from knight of Justice of Santo Stefano or from someone inscribed before 27 April 1859 in the Libro d'Oro of the Grand Duchy, or (c) are nobles by birth or inheritance who hold high public office or have particularly served the Order, and in (b) and (c) that their mothers were born noble. All knights and dames must be Catholic, although an exception is made for Sovereigns, Heads of States and members of royal families who are members of the other Christian denominations. They must also prove that they lead a virtuous life, that they have attained their majority, and are of suitable standing in society. Knights can be accorded the Grand Cross, as can Royal Princesses, while the descendants in the male line of the holders of former priories, bailiwicks or commanderies may be accorded these titles on an honorary basis but without any special precedence. These statutes also require all members to lead a Christian life, among other particular obligations.
 On contracting a civil and unequal marriage.
 Aside from their several marital alliances with members of the Royal House of Scotland, the Edmonstones also married into the great houses of Stewart, Campbell, Graham, Kennedy, Cunningham and Lennox. Members of the family held various posts under the Scottish Crown in the fifteenth, sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries and in the late nineteenth and early twentieth provided two senior members of the Courts of Queen Victoria and King Edward VII. The Duntreath branch descends from Princess Mary (Stewart) of Scotland, by her 4th marriage1425 to her 1st cousin Sir William (I) Edmonstoune of Culloden (granted the Castle and Barony of Duntreath, Stirlingshire, by her nephew, James II, 1445, which has remained with the family until the present day). Sir William (I) Edmonstoune, was the 2nd son of Sir John Edmonstoune of that Ilk, Baron of Boyne, Ednam and Tilly-Allan by his wife (married between 1388 and 1390) Princess Elisabetta (Stewart) of Scotland, widow of James, Earl of Douglas and Mar and daughter of King Robert II of Scotland by his 2nd wife Lady Euphemia de Ross, daughter of Hugh, Earl of Ross and Maud de Brus (sister of King Robert the Bruce). Sir William (I) Edmonstoune (died 1460) left an only son, William (II). Sir William (II) Edmonstoune, Baron of Duntreath and Culloden (died 1462), served as a Lord of Articles of the Standing Committee of the Scottish Parliament 1461. His son, Sir William (III) Edmonstoune, of Culloden and Duntreath married 1473 his cousin Maud or Mathilda Stewart, daughter of Sir James Stewart, Baron of Baldorran (4th son of Murdach Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, grandson of Robert II, King of Scotland, by Elisabetta, Countess suo jure of Lennox), by a Lady of the Macdonald family. He was granted an augmentation to his Arms of the Double Tressure, called “of Scotland” and the Royal Scottish supporters, two lions rampant gules, in recognition of his several descents from the Scottish Royal House. William (V) Edmonstoune, who was in turn appointed with his brother Archibald joint Constable of the Castle of Down, and Stewart of Menteith and Strathgartney (this last until 1534 when it was granted to his cousin Sir James Stewart, brother of Lords Avondale and Methven). He married his cousin Lady Agnes Stewart, younger daughter of Matthew Stewart, 2nd (or 13th) Earl of Lennox (descended from Alexander, 4th Great Steward of Scotland), killed at Flodden 1515, by his wife and cousin (married 1512 with Papal dispensation) Lady Elizabeth Stewart (daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Arran, descended from Robert II, King of Scotland); she was great-aunt of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots.
 The Grand Duke Sigismondo informed the Archduke Otto, as Head of the Imperial House of Austria, of his forthcoming marriage on 22 June 1998, and received a letter with the Archduke Otto’s acquiescence on 10th August 1998.
 Established in 1753, requiring that the thrones of Austria and Modena never be united; the new Habsburg Duke was invested as heir in 1771, this ratified by the Imperial Diet.
 For a detailed exposition of the Modena succession and the related documents, see http://www.heraldica.org/topics/royalty/modena.htm
 Franz Ferdinand had named Karl as heir to the Este properties in his Testament of 3rd June 1907.
 The head of this branch does not use the title of Duke of Modena; he is nonetheless de jure Grand Master of the Order of the Eagle of Este.
 Which provides that the throne passes to King Juan Carlos I de Borbón and his “sucesores”, which includes collateral lines.
 The Royal Academy of Jurisprudence and Legislation, the Institute Salazar y Castro, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Foreign Affaire and the Council of State all reported unanimously that the Infante Don Carlos de Borbón-Dos Sicilias y Borbón-Parma, Duque de Calabria, was heir to the Headship of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies and the Constantinian Grand Magistery.
 Even though he was also reigning Grand Duke at the time.
 That the Countess’s mother was a Princess of the Two Sicilies certainly influenced the Count of Caserta in allowing this match.
 The title of sons of the British sovereign today is “Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland”.
 The present Queen of the Hellenes was born a Princess of Denmark, but renounced her right to the Danish throne after when she married.
 This law was unpublished; indeed its existence was unknown outside the Imperial Family and household until 1854. Its contents are cited in a decision of the Austrian High Court (oberste Gerichsthof) of 8 Apr 1863 (Gerichtszeitung 1864, n. 27, p. 2265; cited in Opet and Ehrenzweig in the "Zeitschrift für Notariat und freiwillige Gerichtsbarkeit in Osterreich 1903 n. 13; reference in Rehm, p. 283). See François Velde’s Internet site, http://www.heraldica.org/topics/royalty/ps1713.htm#International
 “In den mit eigener Souverainetät begabten Zweigen Unseres Erzhauses üben die Häupter dieser Zweige die Rechte des Gemeinsamen Familien-Oberhauptes für die Glieder desselben in Ansehung ihrer Verehelichung aus, und ist mit Zuversicht zu erwarten, daß in jedem dieser Zweige in Berücksichtigung der gemeinsamen Rechte aller Familie glieder und der Bande, welche alle Zweige des Gesammthauses vereinigen, die von jeher in dem Erzhause bei Verehelichungen bestandenen gleichartigen Grundsätze und die gemeinsamen Familien-Interessen niwerden außer Acht gelassen werden.”
 Published and recognized families.
 I. e. Tuscany and Modena; since 1815 the former has always remained completely independent and autonomous from the senior branch as the secondigeniture provision has never been applied.
 The title of Count, then Prince of Altenburg granted to the Archduke Clement Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, by Archduke Otto on 19 Feb 1932 and 15 Dec 1949 respectively, may be regarded as a substitute for his Austrian, and not his Tuscan titles. The Archduke of Austria-Este may also be considered to be the head of an autonomous branch, that descended from his father, as representing the former sovereign branch of Modena.
 Some heads of royal houses use the full royal style; Duke of Saxe-Coburg, for example, or Duke of Anhalt, while others use the title of the Heir Apparent, such as Duke of Calabria (Two Sicilies), Crown Prince of Hannover (Hannover and Brunswick), Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar (Saxe-Weimar und Eisenach), and Duke of Braganza (Portugal). The Heads of some other former reigning Houses use a title customary to cadets (Archduke of Austria, for example), Duke of Wurttemberg, or Landgraf of Hesse. Others have chosen to use subordinate titles – such as MarkGraf of Meissen (Head of the Royal House of Saxony). In each of these examples, the decision to utilize one or other title is the prerogative of the Head of that House, and editors of genealogical reference works have no authority whatsoever to decide on their behalf.