Tancred of Hauteville (who had came from Normandy), settled in Sicily ca 1020, and was father with other sons of (1) William (d 1046), who became Count of Apulia ca 1040, (2) Robert (d 1085), who took the title Duke of Apulia (and was father of Bohemond, Prince of Taranto and Antioch, d 1100, and Roger, Duke of Apulia, d 1109), and (3) Roger (d 1101), invested as Count of Sicily by the Pope, who was father of Roger II (d 1154), assumed the title King of Sicily in 1130. Roger’s direct male line became extinct 1198 when the Sicilian Crown passed through the female line to the Emperor Frederick II (d 1250). The Crown of Sicily fell into dispute for centuries, first between the natural son of Frederick, Count Manfred, then Charles of France, Duke of Anjou on whom it was invested 1265, and later Pedro of Aragon (elected King 1282). The House of Aragon continued to rule in Sicily until 1516, but then Sicily passed with the Crown of Aragon to the Habsburg Kings of Spain; the claim to Sicily was continued by the Anjou Kings of Naples (see FRANCE above), but when the throne of Naples was acquired by Alfonso V, King of Aragon, in 1435, he united both claims to Sicily as first King of the Two Sicilies. On his death in 1458 he divided the thrones once again, leaving Sicily and Aragon to his brother John II (d 1479), father of Ferdinand, King of Aragon (d 1516), and Naples to his natural son Ferdinand (d 1491) whose line became extinct in 1504 when the Crown reverted to Aragon. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was ruled by Viceroys appointed by Spain until 1713, and then Austria (following the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, although Sicily was ruled separately by the House of Savoy from 1713-18). Austrian ruled ended with the Spanish victory of Bitonto in 1734, which led to the accession to the two thrones of the Infant Charles of Spain (later Charles III of Spain, see above), elder son of the marriage of Philip V, King of Spain (see A above) to his 2nd wife, Isabella Farnese, heiress of Parma. This line was founded by Infant Ferdinand of Spain (b 12 Jan 1751; d 4 Jan 1825), to whom his father, King Charles III of Spain (see Line One above), abdicated as King of Naples and Sicily 6 Oct 1759, in the Pragmatic Decree which required that the Crowns of Spain and the Italian Sovereignties and Estates not be united in the same person, but which gave reciprocal rights to both thrones to all the male descendants of Charles III, requiring that on the extinction of the male line the Two Sicilies throne would pass to the female most closely related to the last King (or Head of the House). This decree was confirmed by Art 5, Law of 8 Dec 1816, the Sovereign Acts of 7 Apr 1829 and 12 Mar 1836, and Chapter IV, Art 70 of the Constitution of 10 Jan 1848, reinforced by Royal Proclamation 28 Jun 1860. By a separate decree 16 Oct 1759 the Grand Magistery of the Constantinian Order and Farnese properties were passed to the new King Ferdinand as "legitimate primogeniture heir of the Farnese". Ferdinand IV King of Naples and III, King of Sicily, retained the title Infant of Spain, and from 8 Dec 1816 reigned as King Ferdinand I of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. By Art 165 (III), Constitution of 1820/21, the King "cannot alienate, cede, or renounce in any way to any other person the Royal Authority" and could only "abdicate the throne in favour of the person of his immediate successor" reinforced as an Act relating to the Royal Family by the 1848/60 Constitution. The dynasty ceased to reign when the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was annexed to the new Kingdom of Italy 17 Dec 1860. King Francesco II (b 16 In 1836; d 27 Dec 1894; succ 22 May 1859) protested against the annexation 12 Dec 1860 and held the fortress of Gaeta until 13 Feb 1861, when he was obliged to surrender and leave for exile in Rome, then Bavaria. Since the death of Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria, in 1960, the succession has been disputed. Succession is by male primogeniture in the descendants of Ferdinand I, then by male primogeniture among the yr sons of Charles III, then to the descendants of Charles IV and failing such male heirs to the female most closely related to the last King (or Head of the House). Marriages of members of the House are regulated by the Sovereign Acts of 7 Apr 1829 and 12 Mar 1836, requiring Princes and Princesses to have prior permission of the King to marry, failing which the marriage would be null and void for succession purposes. The sons and daughters, and grandsons and granddaughters in the male line of the King (or Head of the House) bear the title of Prince Royal or Princess Royal of the Two Sicilies with the qualification of Royal Highness, all other cadets born of dynastic marriages bear the title Prince or Princess of the Two Sicilies with the qualification of Royal Highness. These titles are customarily abbreviated to Prince or Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

Arms:- Per pale: Dexter, per pale: dexter, Quarterly of six: lst and 6th or, six fleurs de-lys az, one, two, two and one (Farnese of Parma); 2nd and 4th, gu, a fesse arg (Austria); 3rd and 5th, bendy of six or and az, a bordure gu (Burgundy Ancient); all debruised of an escutcheon arg charged with five escutcheons az in cross, each bearing five plates in saltire arg, all within a bordure gu, charged with seven castles or (Portugal). Sinister, on a fesse gu, a fesse arg (Austria); in chief, Quarterly: 1st and 4th, gu a castle or, masoned sa, port and fenestration az (Castile); 2nd and 3rd, arg, a lion rampant 9111 armed langued and crowned or (Leon); ente en pointe: arg, a pomegranate gu, stalked and leaved vert (Granada). In base, per fesse: in chief per bend-sinister in dexter-chief, bendy of six or and az, a bordure gu (Burgundy Ancient); in sinister base, or, a lion sa, armed and langued gu (Flanders); in base ax, nine fleurs-de-lys, three, three and three or, debruised of a label throughout of five points gu (Anjou). Sinister per pale: dexter per fess: in chief, per fess, or, four pallets gu (Aragon) impaling per saltire, palewise, or, four pallets gu (also for Aragon) and fessewise arg, an eagle displayed sa beaked and membered gu, crowned or (Sicily). In base az, eight fleurs de-lys or, three, two and three, within a bordure compony arg and gu (Burgundy Modem). In base, per fesse: in chief, in bend; in dexter base, arg, an eagle displayed gu, beaked, membered, crowned and trefle or (Tyrol); and in sinister chief, sa, a lion rampant or, armed and langued gu (Brabant). In base, arg a cross potent between four crosses humetty or (Jerusalem). Sinister, or, six torteaux, the chief most absconded by a heurte charged with three fleurs-de-lys or, the other five gu (Medicis of Tuscany). Over all an escutcheon of pretence az, three fleurs-de-lys or, a bordure gu (BourbonAnjou). The whole ensigned with the Royal Crown of the Two Sicilies and surrounded by the Collars of the Orders of Saint Januarius, Saint Ferdinand and of Merit, the Constantinian Order of Saint George and the Golden Fleece.

Orders: Order of Saint Januarius (1 cl; 60 limit); Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit (3 cl); Order of Francis I (3 cl); (part of the Farnese inheritance) the Constantinian Order of Saint George (3 div, 2 cl. in each).