THE ROYAL HOUSE OF BOURBON

 

DOC 19. QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE OF 1718, FRENCH TEXT ARTICLES 1 & 2

"ART. 1. Comme ainsi soit que l'unique moyen qu'on a pu trouver pour établir un équilibre durable en Europe, a paru être qu'on établit pour règle que les royaumes d'Espagne et de France ne pussent en aucun temps être réunis sur la tète d'une seule et même personne, ni remises en un seul corps à une seule et même ligne, régnante, et que ces deux monarchies doivent rester perpétuellement séparées; pour confirmer cette règle si nécessaire à la tranquillité publique , les princes auxquels la prérogative de la naissance pouvait donner le droit de succéder dans l'un et l'autre royaume ont renoncé, il l'ou des deux ordres de succession pour eux et leur postérité , tellement que la séparation des deux monarchies a passé en loi fond il mentale des deux États.

"Sa Majesté Impériale , voulant donner le dernier complément à une loi si salutaire et si nécessaire, et soulever tout prétexte de sinistre soupçon de sa part, déclare accepter les articles réglés et convenus à Utrecht touchant l'ordre de succession aux trônes d'Espagne et de France, et renonce, tant pour lui que ses descendants et successeurs de tout sexe , à tous les droits et prétentions universellement quelconques qu'elle pourrait avoir sur les provinces de la domination espagnole, dont par le traité d'Utrecht le Roi Catholique il été reconnu legitime souverain et possesseur; Sa Majesté Impériale promet vit conséquement d’en rédiger acte de renonciation solennelle, et d'en délivrer instrument en forme tant à Sa Majesté Catholique qu'aux pallies contractantes.

"ART. -2, En exécution de ladite renonciation que Sa Majesté Impériale a faite par attachement pour la sécurité générale de Europe, et aussi en considération de ce que M. le duc Orléans à renoncé, pour lui et ses descendants, à ses droits et actions sur le royaume d'Espagne (JURIBUS ET RATIONIBUS SUIS), sous la condition que l'Empereur ni aucun de ses déscendants ne pût jamais succéder en Espagne ; Sa Majesté Impériale reconnaît pour Roi légitime d'Espagne Philippe V, et promet à lui et à sa descendance masculine et féminine, la paisible possession de la monarchie espagnole"

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DOC 20. RENUNCIATION OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES VI
TO THE SPANISH THRONES

"Act of Abdication made in Vienna of the claims to the Spanish throne ... We, Charles the Sixth, by the grace of Divine Mercy, Emperor elect of the Romans &c. make it known now and for all posterity ...

"After the untimely death of His Most Serene Majesty, Prince Carlos the Second, King of Spain and of the Indies, on whose memory the sun shall never set, there ensued a bitter and prolonged war of succession which has for so long and so cruelly ravaged almost all of Europe, notwithstanding that the agreements signed at Utrecht and at Baden were sufficient and competent to settle the various differences, and thereby forestall a fresh outbreak of hostilities in Italy. God, of His goodness, was pleased to grant that, having entered into friendly discussions and given the predicament mature consideration, certain articles of non-aggression and alliance were reached this year 1718 between Ourselves and His Most Serene Majesty, Louis XV, King of France, under the guidance of His Most Serene Majesty, Prince Felipe, Duke of Orléans, who was at that time Prince Regent of that Realm, and His Most Serene Majesty Prince George, King of Great Britain, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. We had the sole aim in view that there should be a more widespread peace, that it should be stabilised among those Rulers who already enjoyed it and that it should be established and blossom forth once again among those who were still at war; all this in such a way that, their quarrels settled, all Europe might enjoy this great boon of peace.

"There is no surer way to realise such a beneficial state of affairs than through these same treaties which are conceived according to the precepts and patterns of previous agreements and it is made irrevocable law (and the salvation of all Europe depends upon this) that the Crowns of Spain and France be decreed separate in perpetuity and the Crown of Spain and the Indies separate in perpetuity from that of the other European states which We now hold and are to retain under the Treaty. Given a balance of power and a equable apportionment of forces among the European rulers, it shall be decreed that the union in one person and in one lineage of the Crowns of many several states shall be decreed unlawful and We shall guarantee stipulations advantageous both to Ourselves and equally to the Rulers who are signatories to this non-aggression alliance and also to those who choose to agree to it under the widest interpretation of the said articles of this Convention.

"The abdication which We are to make of any claim to the Kingdoms of Spain and the Indies forms a part of this Treaty, both because Our natural inclination to peace and Our concern for the common weal are much more powerful motives than any others and also because We wish to avoid any pretext for pernicious suspicions, and We shall therefore give up Our rights to the said Kingdoms of Spain and the Indies and have ordered Our ambassadors plenipotentiary to sign the said Treaty in London. Similarly, moved to pity, (and lest we fall short of the wishes of the allied Rulers) by the deplorable state of Europe and by the desolation which threatened so many peoples and nations, and moved by the advantages contained in the said Treaty, We determined at last to make this concession and abdication of the Thrones of Spain and of the Indies chiefly in order that the abdication of His Most Serene Majesty, Prince Felipe V, King of Spain and of the Indies, of the Kingdom and Crown of France, proclaimed both in His Own Name and in that of his descendants on the 5th November 1712, in favour of His Most Serene Majesty the Duke of Orléans - which abdication was accepted as law in Spain and is a condition of Our own abdication might also come into full force and effect, and also that through this Our abdication, those abdications made by His Most Serene Majesty the Duke of Berry in Marly on the 24th November 1712, and by the said Duke of Orléans in Paris on the 19th of the same month and year, and which were confirmed by the Treaties of Utrecht on the ilth April 1713, might be once again ratified and that the stipulation that it should at no time be lawful for the Crowns of France and Spain to be united in one person or in one lineage, should be established as a hard and fast rule for all time.

"Moved therefore, by these matters of such great moment, and lest We delay for one hour more the peace of the whole of Europe, which We so greatly desire, and which We judge compassable by these two abdications, and having pondered deeply and given the matter mature consideration, We concede and abdicate for these reasons both in Our Own Name and in that of Our heirs and successors, male and female, all lawful rights, suits and claims which are made in Our Name to the Kingdoms of Spain and to the Indies, and to the Dominions of the Spanish Crown which under the Treaties of Utrecht and under this present agreement have been ratified as belonging to the aforementioned King of Spain and the Indies, and likewise, in complete possession of Our faculties, We, spontaneously and of Our own free will renounce, and abdicate, in virtue of the present Treaty, all Our rights in favour of His Most Serene Highness the said Prince Felipe, King of Spain and of the Indies, of His heirs, descendants and successors, be they male or female. If these are wanting, for whatever conceivable reason, We abdicate Our rights in favour of the House of Savoy, in accordance with the purport of the aforementioned Treaty, and in the order of accession laid down therein, viz, His Most Serene Majesty, the present King of Sardinia, Duke of Savoy, Prince of Piedmont, Victor Amadeo, His sons and male descendants begotten in lawful wedlock, and in default of male descendants in this line also, Prince Manuel of Savoy, His sons and male descendants begotten in lawful wedlock, and in default of heirs to this line, Prince Eugenio of Savoy, His sons and male descendants begotten in lawful wedlock with Princess Catalina, daughter of King Felipe the Second. In this We renounce in Our Own Name and in that of Our heirs and successors, all lawful rights which make Us claimants or in any conceivable manner endorse a claim on Our part to the said Kingdoms, be these rights of blood, or be they rights arising from past agreements and the laws of the Kingdom. We confirm and endorse Our abdication as King of Spain and of the Indies, which We have determined upon in the hope that it be recognised as de facto common law and Royal decree. We command that it be observed by all Our subjects of all Our Kingdoms and colonies, notwithstanding any laws, sanctions, treaties and practices which decree otherwise, and We do hereby expressly declare them null and void, and make good any de facto and de jure defects there might be in either the letter of the law or its execution, renouncing all benefits envisaged by the laws and in particular that of Restoration, all eventualities and even a gross breach of contract notwithstanding; and having pondered all this of Our own free will and in complete possession of Our faculties We do abdicate Our throne and make known Our will that all these caveat be null and void and repealed by Us, and We hereby give Our pledge that We shall in no wise oppose the peaceful and uninterrupted enjoyment of the aforesaid Kingdom by the said Ruler, the present King of Spain and the Indies, His descendants and successors, and that, consequent upon this Abdication, We shall at no time cause them any disquiet, either by force of arms or by any other means. Rather We do declare that henceforth any war that We or Our successors undertake against them with the intention of recovering and taking possession of the said Kingdoms shall be unlawful and, moreover, that any war that be waged against Us in self-defence by His Most Serene Majesty, the King of Spain, or His heirs, or by any person called to the thrones of the said Kingdoms in default of the aforesaid, shall be just and lawful; and that, if any eventuality should have been overlooked in the letter of this Our Deed of Abdication, it is Our will that it be supplied from the provisions laid down in the said Treaty of London, which Act, lately agreed upon, is and shall be in all matters the only body of laws pertinent to this Our Act of Abdication. And We do hereby give our pledge as King and Archduke that We and all Our heirs and successors shall hold the letter of this Act of Concession, Abdication and Renunciation sacred and inviolate, and that We shall endeavour to ensure that Our subjects do likewise. In this indomitable and resolute faith, We have put Our name to this Our present Act of Concession, Abdication and Renunciation and guaranteed it with sacred oath sworn on the Holy Gospel in the presence of the undersigned witnesses, from the which oath We shall never seek release, and should any other person seek it in Our name, or should it be offered Us without Our having sought it, We shall not admit of it nor shall We turn it to Our advantage. We do hereby give this Our present instrument of Abdication, duly signed with Our name, and sealed with the Imperial Royal and Archducal seal, into the safekeeping of His Most Serene Majesty, the King of Spain, at the time and in the manner stipulated in the present Treaty. Given at Vienna on the Sixteenth day of September in the year of Our Lord, seventeen hundred and eighteen, in the seventh year of Our reign as Roman Emperor, the sixteenth as King of Spain, and the eighth as King of Hungary and Bohemia. Charles."

Taken from SPAIN UNDER THE BOURBONS, Edited and Translated with a critical introduction by W. N. Hargreaves-Mawdsley, MA, Dphil, FRHistS, Prof of History, Brandon University, Canada, London, Macmillan, 1973, quoting from Fray Nicolás de Jesús Belando, Historia civil de España y sucesos de la guerra y tratados de la paz; desde el año de mil setecientos hasta el de mil setecientos terinta y tres, Madrid, 1740, Part Four, pp. 256-61.

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